Science frontiers (from the pages of the World\

Science frontiers (from the pages of the World's Scientific Journals)


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ГОУ ВПО «МАТИ» - РОССИЙСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

имени К.Э.Циолковского

____________________________________________

Кафедра «Иностранные языки»





SCIENCE FRONTIERS

(from the pages of the World's Scientific Journals)

READING for

UNDERGRADUATED STUDENTS


http://www.science-frontiers.com


Москва 2006


УДК 802.0(075.4)

ББК 81.2 Анг.

А89


«SCIENCE FRONTIERS». Пособие для самостоятельной работы студентов-магистров технических специальностей.

Авторы – составители: Артюшина Г.Г., Шейпак О.А., Еремеенкова Н.А. М.: «МАТИ» - РГТУ им. Циолковского, 2006.


Учебное пособие «SCIENCE FRONTIERS» предназначено для самостоятельной работы студентов-магистров неязыковых вузов, изучающих английский язык и готовящихся к сдаче экзамена в аспирантуру.


Text 1

^ DID HUMANS EVOLVE IN SIBERIA?

1. Прочтите заголовок текста. Рассмотрите картинку и попытайтесь предугадать о чем говорится в тексте. Изложите свои предположения в 2-3 предложениях.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


^ 2. Прочитайте текст, выделяя ключевые слова.

1950 знаков


Russian academician Yuri Mochanov thinks so! He does not dispute that humans may also have evolved in Africa and, perhaps, Southeast Asia. And he has brought back some 4,000 stone tools collected at 15 sites in the Siberian permafrost to bolster his claim that Siberia, too, was a point of origin for hominids (see map).

«Molchanov’s controversial evidence is indeed striking: a collection of chipped and flaked rocks that are clearly artifacts fashioned by humanlike hands and that he contends are 2.5 million years old – plus or minus a half-million years. Remarkably, that same era marked the time when early human ancestors known as Homo habilis lived and left their remains in the tropical Olduvai Gorge of what is now Tanzania. Mochanov’s collection of tools closely resembles the ones that anthropologists have long collected from digs in Africa.

All this contrasts strongly with the dominant view of hominid evolution, which cites warm, verdant African forests and savannas as our most likely place of origin. Siberia, with its -50° winters and fleeting summers, hardly seems conducive to hominid speciation. Mochanov’s rationale is that this severe climate actually stimulated ancient hominids to create tools, fashion warm clothing, and build winter shelters – these Siberian hominids had to evolve or perish!

In addition to the climate factor are two other problems: (1) The Siberian sites have yielded no hominid bones nor have animal bones of any kind been found; and (2) The dating of the tools is shaky. They cannot be radiometrically dated. Instead, Mochanov has had to rely on the tools' similarity to African tools of 2 million years ago, magnetostratigraphy, the decayed luminescence of the soil, and the ages of the strata in the 450-foot gorge of the Lena River. It goes without saying that other anthropologists are reserving judgment.

Nevertheless, Mochanov’s Siberian discoveries have produced a magnitude-8 tremor in science.

(Perlman, David; "Russian Scientist Says Homo sapiens Has Arctic Origins," San Francisco Chronicle, January 17, 1994. Cr. J. Covey. A short summary of Mochanov's research appeared in: Stone, Richard; "Turning Out-of-Africa Inside Out," Science, 262:1963, 1993.)


3. Напишите краткие ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. Who does agree with the words in the headline of the text?

No,I does not agree with the words in the headline of the text

2. Why is Molchanov's controversial evidence striking?

Molchanov's controversial evidence striking because humans evolve in Siberia

3. What is the main contrast of Molchanov's theory with the dominant view of hominid evolution?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. What is the problem with the dating of the tools?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. Is the theory of Russian academician really revolutionary?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


4. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.

1. Русский академик Юрий Молчанов полагает, что человечество зародилось в Сибири.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Северный климат заставлял древних людей производить орудия и теплую одежду для того, чтобы выжить.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


^ 5. Напишите краткий пересказ текста, используя ключевые слова, выделенные при чтении.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Text 2

TRACTORS of the GODS?


1. Посмотрите на картинку и подумайте о чем будет текст. Выберете самое подходящее на ваш взгляд предположение.

1. The types of cakes decoration. ___________________________________________________

2. Aliens teach their children to draw. _______________________________________________

3. New patterns of unusual lines clearly visible from the air. _____________________________


2. Прочтите текст. Оправдалось ли ваше предположение?

683 знака




We are all familiar with the Nazca Lines of South America and the wild theories about the aliens that drew them on the high arid plateaus.

«...now, new patterns have appeared on some parched ground in remote north-western Australia, a series of spirals, circles and broken wavy lines by the North West Coastal Highway near Roebourne. Dick Smith noticed them while flying over the area in June 1988. By virtue of their large size they are, like their ancient counterparts, clearly visible only from the air. Dick photographed them and in due course asked me to try to find out what they were. Simple, I thought, they must be for erosion control or some other form of land management.»

(Hill, Chris; "Tractors of the Gods?" Australian Geographic, p. 25, July-September 1990. Cr. L.S. Nelson)


3. Какое из представленных в тексте объяснений необычных рисунков кажется вам наиболее верным? Почему? Напишите свое мнение в 3-4 предложениях.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


^ 4. Переведите текст письменно на русский язык.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


5. Расставьте слова в правильном порядке так, чтобы получились вопросительные предложения.

1. you/ with/ of/ Nazsa/ familiar/ are/ America/ Lines/ the/ South?

_____________________________________________________________________________

2. broken/ have/ circles/ and/ wavy/ where/ spirals/ appeared/ lines?

_____________________________________________________________________________

3. new/ clearly/ could/ be/ patterns/ how/ visible?

_____________________________________________________________________________

4. management/ think/ must/ you/ new/ do/ land/ patterns/ just/ of/ that/ be/ form?

_____________________________________________________________________________


Text 3

1. Что вы знаете о науке археологии? Для чего она нужна и нужна ли вообще? Напишите свое мнение в 3-4 предложениях.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


2. Прочитайте текст, выделяя ключевые мысли.

T^ HE «INSCRIBED WALL» AT CHATATA, TENNESSEE


2094 знака

One of our favorite anomalies over the years has been the ancient «inscribed wall» at Chatata, near Cleveland, in Bradley County, Tennessee. The above quotation marks are intended to warn the reader that said wall may not be man-made, and its inscriptions may be natural rather than artificial.

An old drawing of a section of the «inscribed wall» at Chatata, TN. Note the triangular marker stone projecting above ground level.

The history of the Chatata wall is long and convoluted. Discovered over a century ago, new facts are still coming to light today, as reviewed by D.E. Wirth in a recent issue of The Ancient American.

The wall was originally almost completely buried. It attracted attention only because its course was marked on the surface by stones projecting from the ground every 25-30 feet over a gently curving arc about 1,000 feet long. One of these surface stones seemed to be inscribed with strange symbols. Excavations, supported at first by the Smithsonian Institution, revealed a 3-ply sandstone wall-like structure seemingly cemented together by a reddish mortar. Splitting the sandstone sheets revealed diagonal rows of markings like those illustrated.

At first, both wall and inscriptions were proclaimed to be artificial. More recent studies by geologists point to natural origins for the wall, the mortar, and even the inscriptions themselves. The latter may be no more than the burrows of mollusks. This interpretation does make sense because the so-called inscriptions were almost completely covered by the "mortar" - hardly a good way to convey messages! Also, the inscriptions themselves do not really look regular enough to be man-made. For these and other reasons, the Chatata wall now seems more of a geological curiosity rather than an archeological anomaly.

Nevertheless, at least two nagging questions remain:

Why were there regularly placed stones on the surface over the wall?

Early investigators also reported seeing inscriptions of animals, the swastika, the serpent symbol, and other recognized Indian symbology. Whatever happened to these inscriptions?

(Wirth, Diane E.; "An Ancient Wall at Chatata, Bradley County, Tennessee, Ancient American, 1:20, September/ October 1994. Also: Rawson, A.L.; "The Ancient Inscription at Chatata, Tennessee," American Antiquarian, 14: 221, 1892.)


3. Определите какое из нижеприведенных утверждений верно (t), а какое не верно (f). Не верное утверждение исправьте.

1. The ancient «inscribed wall» is situated at Chatata, near NY.

_____________________________________________________________________________

2. The ancient «inscribed wall» was discovered over ten centuries ago.

_____________________________________________________________________________

3. The wall was originally almost completely flooded.

_____________________________________________________________________________

4. Several of these surface stones seemed to be inscribed with strange symbols.

_____________________________________________________________________________

5. At first, both wall and inscriptions were proclaimed to be artificial.

_____________________________________________________________________________

6. The latter scholars thought that it may be no more than the fox tracks.

_____________________________________________________________________________

7. Early investigators also reported seeing inscriptions of elephants, the swastika, the dragon symbol, and other recognized Maya symbology.

_____________________________________________________________________________


^ 4. Перефразируя текст запишите его так, чтобы у вас получилась краткая новостная заметка о первоначальном открытии "стены".

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


^ 5 Придумайте и запишите 5 вопросов обращенных исследователям "стены".

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Text 4

1. Прочтите текст, заполняя пропуски указанными словами в соответствующей форме.

^ THE CANDELABRA OF THE ANDES


1457 знаков




595 feet from top to bottom and visible far out at sea. What was the purpose behind this strange geoglyph?


One of the most engimatic giant ground drawings (or «geoglyphs») in South America _____________ (to see) best from several miles out at sea. Etched into a sloping hill at Pisco Bay on the Peruvian coast, this strange figure ________________ (to look) vaguely like a candlestick; thus, its name «The Candelabra of the Andes.» The Candelabra is 595 feet long and ___________________________ (can / to see) from as far as 12 miles out to sea. Pottery found near the figure has been carbondated at 200 BC and is assignable to the Paracas Culture. ____________________________ (to separate) by 130 miles from the Nazca Plain, with its famed giant figures, the Candelabra apparently is not the work of the Nazca people. It is puzzling why that such a figure would be placed where it _____________________ (can / to see) best by sailors. As with Costa Rica’s stone spheres, the Candelabra's makers, purpose, and symbology are in doubt.

The Pisco geoglyph really ____________________ (to match) the motifs in our books on South American archeology. Some archeologists say it is only a trident, but who ______________________ (even / to see) a trident like this? F. Joseph, the author of the present article, thinks it ___________________ (to look like) a Jimson weed! Furthermore, he states that there is a miniature version of the Candelabra _______________________ (to draw) on a rock in California’s Cleveland National Forest. Joseph ____________________________(to associate) the two candelabras in this way: The ancient inhabitants of Peru ___________________ (to voyage) to California to collect Jimson weed and other hallucinatory drugs. When they _________________ (to sail back) to Peru with their cargo, they ___________ (to use) the Pisco geoglyph as a navigational aid!

(Joseph, Frank; "The Candelabra of the Andes," The Ancient American, 2:10, no. 10, 1995.)


2. Напишите краткие ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. What is the size of «The Candelabra of the Andes»?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Why does this geoglyph have such strange name?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. Do archeologists understand the purpose of this geoglyph?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Where is a miniature version of the Candelabra?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. What is the F. Joseph's theory about the connection between two candelabras?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


^ 3. Напишите свое мнение о том, как и для чего было создано изображение the Candelabra.
  1   2   3   4   5   6

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