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Ж.Г. Аванесян

английский

для экономистов

Учебное пособие

3-е издание

издательство

ОМЕГА-Л



Курс иностранного языка


^ Ж.Г. Аванесян




английский язык


для экономистов


Учебное пособие

ч


(3 Рекомендовано Учебно-методическим объединением

по образованию в области лингвистики Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации в качестве учебного пособия для студентов экономических специальностей


3-е издание, стереотипное


Тульский институт экономики и информатики

БИБЛИОТЕКА




ОМЕГА-А

Москва, 2008



УДК 811.111(075.8) ББК81.2Англ-923 А18

Рецензенты:

О. В. Куликова - заведующая кафедрой лингвистики и профессиональной коммуникации в области экономики МГЛУ, капдидат филологических наук, доцент;

Е, Ю. Долматовская - профессор Московского государственного технического университета МАМИ, кандидат педагогических наук, профессор;

В. 3. Демьянков - главный научный сотрудник Иститута языкознания РАН, доктор филологических наук, профессор

^ Аванесяп, Жанна Генриховна

А18 Английский язык для экономистов : учеб. пособие для сту-

дентов эконом, специальностей / Ж. Г. Аванесян. - 3-е изд., стер. - М.: Издательство «Омсга-Л», 2008. - 312 с. н CD. - (Курс иностранного языка).

ISBN 978-5-370-00797-2

^ Агентство CIP РГБ

Целью учебного пособия является развитие навыков и умений чтения, аудирования, двустороннего перевода, расширение лексического запаса студентов в области профессиональной терминологии. Кроме того, пособие нацелено на развитие навыков ведения дискуссии и профессионально ориентированной устной речи. Пособие содержит 10 глав, каждая из которых включает 4 раздела с активным словарем, упражнениями и практическими заданиями. Глоссарий и ключи к упражнениям позволяют использовать пособие для самостоятельной работы.

^ Предназначено для студентов 2-3 курсов факультетов и институтов, готовящих специалистов в области рыночной экономики и свободного предпринимательства.


Учебное издание

Редактор Л.Н. Волкова Корректор АЛ. Воробьева Компьютерная верстка К.С. Шахалина, О.Н. Баканковой

Подписано в печать с готового оригинал-макета 03.03.2008, Формат 60 х 84/16. Печать офсетная. Усл.-печ. л. 18,2. Уч.-изд. л. 19,5. Тираж 2000 экз. Заказ N> 836.

ООО «Издательство *Омега-Л» 123022, Москва, Столярный пер.г д. 14 Тел. (495) 777-17-99; www. omega-l.ru


Отпечатано в полном соответствии с качеством предоставленных лиапозитипов вОАО «Дом печати - ВЯТКА». 610033. г. Киров, ул. Московская, 122




ISBN 978-5-370-00797-2

© Аванесян Ж.Г., 2007

©ООО «Издательство «Омега-Л», 2008


CONTENTS


Предисловие 6

Chapter ONE ^ MASTERING ECONOMICS


Unit I Reading and Translation Practice 7

BASICS OF ECONOMICS '. 7

Unit2. Listening 13

APPLYING FOR A JOB 13

Unit3. Reading Comprehension 16

ECONOMIC INTERDEPENDENCE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE 16

Unit 4. Discussion 21


Chapter TWO ^ DOING BUSINESS

Unit 1. Reading and Translation Practice 24

TYPES OF BUSINESSES 24

Unit2. Listening 31

FINDING OUT ABOUT COMPANY PROFILE 31

Unit3. Reading Comprehension 33

CORPORATE COMBINATIONS IN THE USA 33

Unit 4. Discussion 40


Chapter THREE ^ RESEARCHING THE MARKET


Unit l Reading and Translation Practice 43

MARKET STRUCTURE 49

Unit 2. Listening 49

BREAKING INTO NEW MARKETS 1 49




Unit3. Reading Comprehension 52

^ COMPETITION AND MARKET CONDITIONS 52

Unit 4. Discussion 59


Chapter FOUR MARKETING


Unit l Reading and Translation Practice : 62

ESSENTIALS OF MARKETING 62

Unit2. Listening 69

MARKETING MIX IN ACTION .' 69

Unit3. Reading Comprehension 71

^ MARKETING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 71

Unit 4. Discussion 77


Chapter FIVE


t


PRICING


Unit 1. Reading and Translation Practice 80

^ PRICING POLICY 80

Unit2. Listening 87

PRICING STRATEGY AND COSTING 87

Unit3. Reading Comprehension 92

DEMAND, SUPPLY AND MARKET EQUILIBRIUM 92

Unit 4. Discussion 98


Chapter SIX ADVERTISING


Unit i Reading and Translation Practice 102

^ GOALS OF ADVERTISING 102 '

Unit2. Listening 109

RUNNING AN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN 109

Unit3. Reading Comprehension ,112

ADVERTISING MEDIA 112

Unit 4. Discussion 119


Chapter SEVEN -PROMOTION


Unit 1. Reading and Translation Practice 123

^ SALES PROMOTION 123



Unit 2. Listening 130

DISCUSSING A PROMOTIONAL CAMPAIGN....: 130

Unit 3. Reading Comprehension 133

^ DISTRIBUTION AND SALES 133

Unit 4. Discussion : 140

PERSONAL SELLING 140

Chapter EIGHT FINANCING THE BUSINESS

Unit l Reading and Translation Practice 144

THE FINANCIAL OBJECTIVES OF THE BUSINESS 144

Unit 2. Listening 151

^ PLANNING A NEW BUSINESS 151

Unit3. Reading Comprehension 154

THE FINANCIAL CONTROL OF THE BUSINESS 154

Unit 4. Discussion 161

Chapter NINE MONEY AND THE BANKING SYSTEM

Unit i. Reading and Translation Practice 167

^ THE FUNCTIONS OF MONEY . 167

Unit 2. Listening 175

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MONEY AND BANKING ..175

Unit3. Reading Comprehension 180

TYPES OF FINANCIAL OPERATIONS 180

Unit 4. Discussion 188

Chapter TEN

^ BUSINESS SUCCESS STORIES OF ALL TIME


Unit 7. Reading and Translation Practice 194

BILL GATES AND MICROSOFT CORPORATION 194

Unit 2. Listening 201

MARY KAY ASH AND WALT DISNEY 201

ип'пз. Reading Comprehension 205

^ JOHN D ROCKEFELLER AND HENRY FORD 206

Unit 4. Discussion .214


Keys to Exercises 219

Glossary „.270

Список использованной литературы 312

Предисловие


Данное пособие составлено в соответствии с требованиями Государственного образовательного стандарта Российской Федерации по специальности «Английский язык — профессиональный* для студентов экономических специальностей. Оно нацелено на развитие языковых навыков и коммуникативных умений студентов, таких, как говорение, аудирование, чтение и перевод.

Пособие рассчитано на 280 часов аудиторной работы. Оно состоит из 10 глав, построенных по единому принципу. Каждая глава включает 4 раздела, содержащих материалы и систему упражнений, нацеленную на решение определенных задач.

Раздел 1 (Reading and Translation Practice) ставит своей целью раз витие навыков чтения и двустороннего перевода путем расширения активного и пассивного словаря и развития навыков грамматических трансформаций. В нем представлены тексты газетно-публицистическо-го и специального характера по экономической тематике. Раздел содержит список слов и сочетаний тематического характера, подлежащих активному усвоению (Essential Vocabulary), и систему упражнений рецептивно-репродуктивного характера, в том числе подстановочные и трансформационные.

Раздел 2 (Listening) нацелен на развитие умений и навыков аудирования, а именно: умение выделять общий объект высказываний в диалогическом общении, определять точку зрения каждого из собеседников, определять последовательность аргументов каждого из собеседников, восстанавливать пропущенное звено диалога, а также определять коммуникативное намерение каждого из собеседников. В раздел включены два диалога и упражнения, обеспечивающие контроль понимания аудиоматериала.

Раздел 3 (Reading Comprehension) нацелен на развитие навыков и умений понимания основного содержания прочитанного и нахождения в тексте конкретной информации. Раздел содержит активный словарь и упражнения на контроль понимания текста и развитие навыков двустороннего перевода.

Раздел 4 (Discussion) ставит своей целью развитие навыков устной речи, в том числе ведения профессионально-ориентированной беседы на английском языке, что осуществляется с помощью упражнений коммуникативного характера (подбор адекватных речевых формул, обсуждение высказываний известных людей на экономическую тему).

^ Упражнения, помеченные звездочкой, снабжены ключами, что позволяет использовать данное пособие для самостоятельной работы.

Апробация данного пособия проходила на факультете международных экономических отношений Московского государственного . открытого университета (МГОУ) и показала эффективность его приме нения в учебном процессе.

Chapter ONE

^ MASTERING ECONOMICS


Unit 1. READING AND TRANSLATION PRACTICE


BASICS OF ECONOMICS


The study of the choices people make in an effort to satisfy their wants and needs is called economics. Wants and needs refer to people's desires to consume certain goods and services. In economic terms, a good is a physical object that can be purchased. A record, a house, and a car are examples of a good. A service is an action or activity done for others for a fee. Lawyers, plumbers, teachers, and taxicab drivers perform services. The term product is often used to refer to both goods and services.

The people who wish to buy goods and services are called consumers and the goods that they buy are called consumer goods. The people who make the goods and provide services that satisfy consumers' wants and needs are called producers.

Economists generally classify as needs those goods or services that are necessary for survival. Food, clothing, and shelter are considered needs. Wants are those goods or services that people consume beyond what is needed for survival.

The need for making choices arises from the problem of scarcity. Scarcity exists because people's wants and needs are greater than the resources available to satisfy them. Thus people must choose how best to use their available resources to satisfy the greatest number of wants and needs.

A resource is anything that people use to make or obtain what they want or need. Resources that can be used to produce goods and services are called factors of production.

Economists usually divide these factors of prod action into three categories: (1) natural resources, (2) human resources, (3) capital resources. Today many economists have added technology and entrepreneurship to this list.


^ Natural Resources

Items provided by nature that can be used to produce goods and to provide services are called natural resources. Natural resources are found in/or on the earth or in the earth's atmosphere. Examples of natural resources on the earth are fertile land, vegetation, animals, and bodies of water. Minerals and petroleum are examples of natural resources that are found in the earth. Atmospheric resou rces include the sun, wind and rain. A natural resource is considered a factor of production only when it is used to produce goods and to provide services.


^ Human Resources

Anyone who works is considered a human resource. Any human effort that is exerted in production process is classified as a human resource. The effort can be either physical or intellectual. Assembly-line workers, ministers, professional sports figures, physicians, store clerks, and sanitation engineers are all human resources.


^ Capital Resources

The money and capital goods that are used to produce consumer products are called capital resources. Capital goods include the buildings, structures, machinery, and tools that are used in the production process. Department stores, factories, industrial machinery, dams, ports, wrenches, hammers, and surgical scalpels are all examples of capital goods.

Economists make an important distinction between capital goods and consumer goods. Capital goods are the manufactured resources that are used in producing finished products. Consumer goods are the finished products - the goods and services that consumers buy.

Some products can be either capital goods or consumer goods, depending on how they are used. A bicycle purchased for personal use is a consumer good. The same is not true when the bicycle is purchased by a New York messenger service. Because the messenger service will use the bicycle to make deliveries - to provide a service - the bicycle is considered a capital good.


Technology

The use of science to create new products or more efficient ways to produce products is called technology. Technology makes the other factors of production — natural, human, and capital resources - more productive. Technological advances in the computer industry, for example, have increased efficiency in the workplace.


Entrepreneurship

The risk-taking and organizational abilities involved in starting a new business or introducing a new product to consumers are called entrepreneurship. The goal of entrepreneur-ship is to create a new mix of the other factors of production and thereby create something of value. The entrepreneur is a person who attempts to start a new business or introduce a new product.


^ Essential Vocabulary


capital goods — основные средства, средства производства capital resources - капитал компании, собственные

фонды consumer п - потребитель

consumer goods - потребительские товары, товары народного потреблен ия

economics n - экономика, народное хозяйство entrepreneur п - предприниматель entrepreneurship п - предпринимательство factor of production - движущая сила производства fee п - вознаграждение, гонорар, for a fee - за плату goods п — товар, товары

human resources - кадры, персонал, людские резервы

natural resources - природные богатства

need п — первостепенная необходимость, жизненная

потребность producer п - производитель product п - продукт, продукция production п - производство

purchase п - покупка, закупка, v - покупать закупать

resource п — ресурсы, возможности

satisfy v - удовлетворять (кого-л.; чьи-л. требования,

запросы) scarcity п — нехватка, дефицит service п - оказание услуг, обслуживание survival п - выживание

technological advances - технический прогресс technology п — техника, технические и прикладные науки want п — необходимость, потребность, нужда


Exercises


|* Translate the following words and word combinations or find Russian equivalents.

  1. to make delivery

  2. wide range of goods

  3. existing resources

  4. necessary for survival

  5. beyond what is needed for survival

  6. to provide a service

  7. to increase efficiency in the workplace

  1. to take the risk

  2. to start a new business

10. to introduce a new product


Translate the following sentences into Russian.

  1. In economic terms, a good is a physical object that can be purchased.

  2. The need for making choices arises from the problem of scarcity.

  3. Resources that can be used to produce goods and services are called factors of production.

  4. A natural resource is considered a factor of production only when it is used to produce goods and to provide services.

  5. Economists make an important distinction between capital goods and consumer goods.

  6. Technological advances in the computer industry, for example, have increased efficiency in the workplace.



Fill the gaps in the sentences below with the words and expressions from the box. There are two expressions which you don't need to use.


producers, factors of production, human resource, technology, wants, service, capital resources, consumer goods, entrepreneur, economics

  1. The study of the choices people make in a effort to sat-
    isfy their wants and needs is called .


  2. A is an action or activity done for others for

a fee.

  1. The people who make the goods and provide services that satisfy consumers' wants and needs are called



4. _ are those goods or services that people con-
sume beyond what is needed for survival.


  1. Resources that can be used to produce goods and servic-
    es are called .


  2. The money and capital goods that are used to produce
    consumer products are called .


  3. The use of science to create new products or more effi-
    cient ways to produce products is called .


  4. The is a person who attempts to start a

new business or introduce a new product.


Find English equivalents for the following Russian expressions and words.

  1. движущая сила производства

  2. природные богатства

  3. кадры

  4. выживание

  5. открыть новое дело/бизнес

  6. за плату

  7. товары народного потребления

  8. средства производства

  9. технический прогресс 10. внедрить новый продукт



Translate the following sentences.

  1. Термин «продукт» часто используется для названия как товаров, так и услуг.

  2. Экономисты обычно классифицируют товары и услуги, которые необходимы для выживания, как жизненно необходимые.

  3. Любое человеческое усилие, прилагаемое в производственном процессе, рассматривается как людские резервы.

  4. Цель предпринимательства — создать новый продукт или новые факторы производства и таким образом создать что-либо? имеющее ценность.

  1. Поскольку посыльный использует велосипед для доставки, чтобы обеспечить услуги, велосипед рассматривается как средство производства.

  2. Дефицит существует потому, что потребности и желания людей больше, чем имеющиеся в наличии ресурсы для их удовлетворения.



Unit 2. LISTENING


^ APPLYING FOR A JOB


5* Before you listen to Dialogue No 1 use Glossary to match the words below with their definitions.



  1. in terview

  2. advertisement

  3. experience

  4. appointment

  5. qualification

  6. application

  1. a public notice, usually printed in a newspaper, of goods for sale or services offered; or of goods or services wanted.

  2. a letter of an employer asking for employment.

  3. an office for which a person has been chosen.

  4. something such as a degree or a diploma that you get when you successfully finish a course of study.

  5. a formal meeting in which someone asks you questions to find out if you are suitable for a job, course of study, etc.

  6. knowledge and skill gained through time spent doing a job or activity.





7 Listen to Dialogue No 1 between two speakers and answer the questions below. Then listen again and check your answers.

  1. How do most companies recruit new staff?

  2. What kind of information is usually given in job advertisements?

  3. Do the employers try to attract as many people as possible by job advertisements?



g* Complete the dialogue using the words from the box. There are two words which you don't need to use.


experience, advertisement, interview, appointment, qualifications, applicant, specification


^ JAMES: Hello, James Brown speaking.

BRIAN: Good morning. My name is Brian Carpenter. I've just

seen an (1) in the * International Herald

Tribune*. It said you were looking for a Sales Manager.
I'm very interested in this (2) .


JAMES: Well, would you please give me some details about yourself. What did you say your name was?

BRIAN: Brian Carpenter.

JAMES: Fine. And what about your (3) , Mr.

Carpenter?

BRIAN: I got my BSc in Management. 1 went to Columbia University.

JAMES: OK. Then tell me please about your work

(4) .

BRIAN: My last position was a Sales Manager for Bro^n & Brown. Before that I worked for Corn way Motors for 8 years.

JAMES: Good. I think, we can invite you for an

(5) on Tuesday morning, 10 a.m.

BRIAN: Thank you. Good-bye.

JAMES: Good-bye. Thank you for calling.

9 * Before you listen to Dialogue No 2 match the expressions in the left column with their translation in the right one.



1.

job opportunities

а. терять работу

2.

job interview

b. предлагать кому-л. работу

3.

to offer someone

с. выполнять работу




a job

d. подавать заявление о приеме

4.

to take a job

на работу

5.

to leave a job

е. поступать на работу

6.

job satisfaction

f. собеседование при приеме

7.

to apply for a job

на работу

8.

to do a job

g. увольняться с работы

9.

to lose a job

h. вакансия

10.

CV (curriculum

i. резюме




vitae)

j. удовлетворение от. работы



Ю* Complete the sentences using the expressions from the previous task.

  1. I've for several jobs without success.

  2. My son has been a job in Tokyo.

" 3. I've a job at a hotel in the city centre.

  1. is a document giving details of your qualifications and the jobs you have had in the past.

  2. I've in this job for five years now.

  3. Dan his job after an argument with his boss.

  4. Many steelworkers are worried that they'll

their jobs. *

  1. He's attending a job this morning.

  2. There are not many job in this part of

the country.

10. Workers questioned rated job as more

important than high salary.





Listen to dialogue No 2 between two speakers and answer the questions below. Then listen again and check your answers.

  1. Who are talking?

  2. What company does the candidate want to join?

  3. What position does the candidate apply for?

  4. Why does the candidate want to leave her present job?

  5. What opportunities attract the candidate in the new job?



Unit 3.^ READING COMPREHENSION


ECONOMIC INTERDEPENDENCE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE


International trade is the voluntary exchange of goods

and services between people in different nations. For thousands of years people have benefited from international trade, which provides them with products not available in their homeland. By the mid-1980s international trade amounted to about $2 trillion annually.

At the basis of international trade are the concepts of specialization and economic interdependence. When individuals or businesses produce a single or very narrow range of products, it is called specialization. Many individuals and businesses specialize because by concentrating their efforts on the production of a narrow range of products they are able to increase productivity.

Specialization, however, leads to a decrease in self-sufficiency. If individuals and businesses concentrate on the production of specific goods and services, they must rely on other people to furnish the remaining products that are needed to satisfy their wants and needs. Economists call such dependence economic interdependence.

The same process of specialization and economic interde^ pendence takes place on a national level in international trade. As people in various nations specialize to use their resources better, the nations become less self-sufficient. The political and business leaders of these nations turn to international trade to fulfill some of their wants and needs.

^ Absolute and comparative advantage. The world's resources are unevenly distributed. Each nation has a different quantity and quality of natural, human and capital resources. The unequal distribution of resources affects what and how much goods and services a nation can produce.

^ Two concepts help people to decide which goods and services to produce for export. The two concepts are: absolute advantage and comparative advantage.


Absolute Advantage

The distribution of resources often gives a nation an absolute advantage in the production of a particular product. Absolute advantage means that using the same resources one nation can produce a product at a lower cost than a second

nation.


Brazil, for example, enjoys an absol lite advantage over the United States in coffee production. Brazil's resources - especially its land, climate and inexpensive labor force - enable it to produce large quantities of coffee at a relatively low price compared to the costs for coffee production in the United States. Thus, it is to Brazil's advantage to export coffee to the United States.


The United States, on the other hand, enjoys an absolute
advantage over Brazil in many other areas, particularly in
the production of manu factured goods. The United States has
well-tapped natural resources, a highly skilled labor force
and well-developed means of production for consumer and
capital goods. Thus, it is to the
advantage of the United
States to export manufactured goods to Eji^a^^J^' ■ i



Comparative Advantage

Although nations have an nhmllh .nirnntagr 1П._шГ production of numerous goods and services, they generally specialize in the production of those items in which they have a comparative advantage. A comparative advantage is the advantage that arises from being able to produce a product at a lower opportunity cost relative to other products.

A nation determines its areas of comparative advantage by calculating the economic benefits received from producing various goods and services. The nation then chooses to specialize in the production of those goods and services that provide the greatest economic benefits. In other words, the nation specializes in those products that can be produced at the least expense relative to the other products that the nation might produce.


^ Difference Between Absolute Advantage and Comparative Advantage

A nation's absolute advantage is measured in relation to other nations. A nation has an absolute advantage in the production of a product any time it can produce that product at a lower cost than can other nation. A nation's comparative advantage is measured in relation to all of the goods and services the nation produces. A nation has a comparative advantage in those products that have the lowest opportunity costs.

By specializing in the production of the product it can produce most efficiently, each nation is able to make the best use of its available resources. International trade then allows each nation to enjoy the most products at the lowest opportunity costs.


^ Words and Expressions


absolute advantage - абсолютное преимущество calculate the economic benefits - подсчитывать экономическую выгоду

comparative advantage сравнительное преимущество

cost n - стоимость

decrease in self-sufficiency - уменьшение экономической самостоятельности

economic interdependence - экономическая взаимозависимость

international trade - международная торговля manufactured goods - промышленные товары narrow range of products - ограниченный ассортимент продукции

productivity n - производительность specialization n - специализация

unequal distribution of resources - неравномерное распределение ресурсов

voluntary exchange of goods - добровольный обмен товарами

well-developed means of production for goods - хорошо развитая база средств производства товаров

well-tapped natural resources - хорошо разработанные природные ресурсы


|2 Answer the questions.

  1. What does the term 'international trade' denote?

  2. What concepts are at the basis of international trade? 3 What does absolute advantage mean?

  1. What does comparative advantage mean?

  2. Can you explain the difference between absolute and comparative advantage?



I J* Say if the statements are true or false. Prove your point.

  1. The term international trade denotes the voluntary exchange of goods and services between people in different nations.

  2. Absolute advantage means that using the same resources one nation can produce a product at a higher cost than can a second nation.

  1. At the basis of international trade are the concepts of specialization and economic interdependence.

  2. Comparative advantage is the disadvantage that arises from the inability to produce a product at a lower opportunity cost relative to other products.

  3. By specializing in the production of the product it can produce most efficiently, each nation is able to make the best use of its available resources.



|4* Complete the following sentences by choosing the one correct variant (a, b or c) that best completes the sentence.


^ 1. At the basis of international trade are the concepts of

  1. well-developed means of production

  2. specialization and economic interdependence

  3. well-tapped natural resources

  1. A nation's absolute advantage is measured in relation
    to .


  1. natural resources

  2. means of production

  3. other nations

  1. A nation's comparative advantage is measured in rela-
    tion to .


  1. all the goods and services the nation produces

  2. voluntary exchange of goods

  3. labor force

  1. Brazil enjoys an absolute advantage over the United
    States in .


  1. coal production

  2. coffee production

  3. steel production



^ 5. The United States enjoys an absolute advantage over
Brazil in the production of .


  1. manufactured foodstuffs

  2. convenience goods

  3. manufactured goods



Unit 4. DISCUSSION


|5 Study the expressions in the Useful Language box, which are used to express different language functions. The list of expressions in each function can be continued. Think of expressions which can be added to each function.


^ Useful Language



Expressing agreement

That's true.

I agree.

I totally agree.

I quite agree with that

point of view.

Expressing disagreement

I don't agree. I'm afraid I don't agree. Quite the contrary. I can't agree with that point of view.

^ Expressing certainty It is obvious (that)... I am certain (that)... I am sure (that)...

Expressing doubt

I doubt that...

It is hardly likely (that)...

It's questionable (that)...

Developing the idea

There is one more thing

to be noted...

More than that...

In this connection I'd like

to add...

What is more...

Giving opinions

My point is that... It is my belief that... I believe that... I really think...

|5* Match the function in the left column with the appropriate expression in the right one and complete the Useful Language box with these expressions accordingly.


1. giving opinions a. It is clear (that)...

2. expressing certainty b. I might as well add that...

  1. expressing doubt c. That's right.

  2. expressing disagreement d. In my opinion,

  3. expressing agreement е. I really can't agree with you

  4. developing the idea there.

f. It is most doubtful (that)...


\J Read what famous people said about economy and economics. Discuss the position of the authors. Support your point of view with reasons and examples from your reading, your observations or your own experience. Use the expressions from the Useful Language box to develop your idea and express your opinion.

  1. ^ People do not understand what a great revenue economy is. ч

Marcus T. Cicero (c. 106-43 ВС), great Roman orator, politician

  1. There can be economy only where there is efficiency.

Benjamin Disraeli (1804- 1881), British statesman, Prime Minister

  1. Profit is the ignition system of our economic engine.

Charles Sawyer

  1. The economy depends about as much on economists as the weather does on weather forecasters.

Jean Paul Kauffmann

  1. In economics the majority is always wrong.

John Kenneth Galbraith, American economist


|g Read what famous people said about job and production. Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated below. Support your point of view with reasons and examples from your reading, your observations or your own experience. Use the expressions from the Useful Language box to develop your idea and express your opinion.

  1. The tougher the job, the greater the reward.

George Allen, American football coach

  1. I've met a few people who had to change their jobs in order to change their lives, but I've met many more people who merely had to change their motive to service in order to change their lives.

Peace Pilgrim (1908-1981), American peace acti viet

  1. The society based on production is only productive, not creative.

Albert Camus (1913-1960), French existential writer

  1. Productivity is being able to do things that you were never able to do before.

Jim Manzi, American businessman

  1. Work harder on yourself than you do on your job.

Jim Rohn, American businessman, philosopher

Chapter TWO

^ DOING BUSINESS


Unit 1. READING AND TRANSLATION PRACTICE


TYPES OF BUSINESSES


Objectives of Business Organizations

Business organizations are established to meet wants in society. Private businesses are formed mainly to provide for material wants (i.e. goods and services) and commercial wants (i.e. banking, insurance) in society. Government Organizations, on the other hand, tend to satisfy society's desire for defence, law and order, education and social welfare.

Organizations are thus established to meet wants in society. In meeting these, organizations will set very definite and clear aims, e.g. a manufacturing firm will want to stay in business and make a profit. The aims of an organization are normally decided by the board of directors, or in the case of public organizations by government ministers.

^ The most common forms of private business organizations are sole proprietorships, partnerships and corporations.


Sole Proprietorships

A business owned and controlled by one person is a sole proprietorship. Sole proprietorships are the oldest, simplest, and most common of all types of businesses.

Because the financial resources available to one person often are limited, sole proprietorships tend to be enterprises that require small amounts of capital to start and operate. Many doctors, dentists, lawyers, bakers, and beauticians organize as sole proprietors to provide professional services. Other services offered by sole proprietors include plumbing, carpentry, dry cleaning and lawn care. Many construction companies, small grocery stores, florists, other small retail stores, farms, real estate firms and insurance firms are also organized as sole proprietorships.


Partnerships

A
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   23

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