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Міністерство освіти і науки України

Глухівський державний педагогічний університет




Укладачі:

Ткаченко Наталія Миколаївна


Мілютіна Ольга Костянтинівна

Чирва Марія Климівна


Read, Learn and Speak


Навчальний посібник для студентів

вищих навчальних закладів




Глухів: РВВ ГДПУ

2008

ББК 81.40 (Англ) - 9


М 54


Затверджено вченою радою Глухівського державного педагогічного університету (протокол №10 від 4 липня 2003 року).


^ Read, Learn and Speak. Навчальний посібник для студентів вищих навчальних закладів. – Глухів: РВВ ГДПУ, 2004 – 61 с.


ISBN 966-7763-54-4


Укладачі: Ткаченко Н.М., викладач кафедри іноземних мов Глухівського педуніверситету;

^ Мілютіна О.К., викладач кафедри іноземних мов Глухівського педуніверситету;

Чирва М.К., викладач кафедри іноземних мов Глухівського педуніверситету.


Рецензент: Дудченко М.М., канд. філол. наук, доцент кафедри германської філології Сумського державного педагогічного університету.


Посібник з розвитку навичок усного мовлення та читання розраховано на студентів немовних спеціальностей Глухівського державного педагогічного університету. Посібник являє собою матеріал для побудови усного монологічного висловлювання з теми, передбаченої програмою з англійської мови для студентів немовних спеціальностей, та тексти для читання під час занять з англійської мови, що відповідають лексичній темі заняття. Для роботи в аудиторії на допомогу викладачу пропонуються цікаві завдання і вправи.


ISBN 966-7763-54-4


© Ткаченко Н.М., Мілютіна О.К., Чирва М.К., 2004

© Оригінал-макет: РВВ ГДПУ, 2004
^





Unit One




The English Language in Modern Life


There is a proverb "A new language — a new world". Learning a foreign language is not an easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and efforts. Nowadays it is especially important to know foreign languages. Some people learn languages because they need them for their work, others travel abroad, for the third - studying languages is a hobby. Everyone, who knows foreign languages can speak to people from other countries, read foreign authors in the original, which makes one’s outlook wider. A foreign language helps us in getting information about the achievements of modern science and technology. It is not surprising that many intellectuals and well-educated people know several foreign languages and they are called polyglots.

Nowadays a lot of people study foreign languages in every possible way. Foreign-language study groups are organized at industrial enterprises, at the offices of big firms, at the educational establishments, at research institutes.

As for me I study English. Nowadays English has become the world's most important language in politics, science, trade and cultural relations. Over 300 million people speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, and the South Africa Republic. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organizations. Half of the world's scientific literature is written in English. It is the language of business, commerce and computer technology. English is the language of international communication. English is truly a world language. I think English is also worth studying because our businessmen, tourists, experts often go abroad. In my opinion every visitor should be able to find his own way about in an English-speaking community without interpreters.

Taking into account the economic development in our country, hundreds of joint ventures have appeared in every city and town of our country recently. And a lot of good specialists and interpreters are required for this reason. Besides, a lot of foreign delegations keep coming to our country and most likely they don't know our language perfectly, and the thing is they want to settle their problems in our country and visit the places of interest. So, there is no doubt, foreign languages are worth studying.

^
Reading Texts



HOW MANY PEOPLE SPEAK ENGLISH AND WHY?

It is only in the course of the last hundred years that English has become a number one world language. In the year of 1600, in Shakespeare's time, English was spoken only by 6 million people and was a «provincial» language (as was Russian), while French was the leading foreign language of that century. Three centuries later 260 million people spoke English and now probably one billion people speak English. It has become one of the world's most important languages in politics, science, trade and cultural relations. In number of speakers English nowadays is second only to Chinese. It is the official language of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, of the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. It is used as one of the official languages in Canada and South Africa and in the Irish Republic. It is also spoken as a second language by many people in India, Pakistan, numerous countries in Africa, where there are many different languages and people use English as an «official» or «second» language for government, business and education. Throughout the world many people use English as an international language: some use it for social purposes, others for business or study. In 1992 51% of European schoolchildren studied English as their first foreign language and now this number is much higher.


Decide which of the statements are true and which are false. Mark + the true statements - the false ones.

  1. English was the leading world language in the 17th century.

  2. At the beginning of the 20th century about 300 million people spoke English.

  3. More people in the world speak Chinese than English.

  4. English is among official languages of Canada and South Africa.

  5. English is often used as a second language by representatives of different nations within one country.

  6. English may be called the language of business and commerce.


Why LEARN FOREIGN LANGUAGES?

There are many reasons why we begin the study of a foreign language. One of the main reasons is to be able to communicate orally or in writing with others who use this language. We may be planning to travel in one or more countries where the language is spoken; if we know the language of a foreign country, we can talk to its people and understand what they are saying to us. If we are working in any branch of science, we naturally wish to read scientific books and magazines in other languages.

A more general aim is to make our intellectual and cultural horizons wider through contact with people of another culture.

Which is the best way to learn a language? We should remember that we all learned our own language well when we were small children. If we could learn a second language in the same way (but we can't because we aren't small children any more and English cannot be heard all around us), it would not seem so difficult. Think of what a small child does. It listens to what people say, and it tries to imitate what it hears. When it wants something, it has to ask for it. It is using the language, talking in it and thinking in it all the time. If we could use a second language all the time, we would learn it easily.

It is important to remember also, that we learn our own language by hearing people speak it, not by seeing what they write. We imitate what we hear. At school you learn to hear and speak, to read and write; and the best way to learn new words is through the ear. Later on you'll be able to read, spell and write them.

Answer the following questions:

  1. What foreign languages are studied at your educational establishment? What is your mother tongue?

  1. In what way can a foreign language be useful?

  1. What is the difference between learning a foreign language and learning your own language?

  2. For foreign languages the classes are divided into groups. Why?

  3. What is the most important thing in language learning?

  4. What is the difference between learning a living language and a dead language?

  5. How much of a foreign language can you learn by television (radio)?

  6. How much has your cultural horizon changed since you've begun learning English?

  7. Would you like to become a language teacher? What foreign languages would you like to teach?


Unit Two


My Family and Myself

Before I start talking about my family let me introduce myself. I am Sveta Petrenko. I am 17. I have left school this year. I was born in Kyiv, so I have been living in Kyiv since my childhood.

And now I am going to tell you about my family. We are a family of five. We think we are a large and friendly family. So we are happy to be living together and are getting on all right.

To begin with, I am going to talk about my father. His name is Sergiy Petrovych. He is 45. He works as a surgeon at a hospital. He is neither old, nor young. He is a good-looking man, handsome, rather thin with dark brown hair just beginning to go grey. He is a very sociable person. What I don't like about my dad is that he is always busy. Very often he works overtime. He is a bread-maker in our family. He is fond of going to the country on week-ends, because he enjoys working in the garden.

My mother's name is Galyna Mykolayivna. She is three years younger than my father. She works as a teacher at a nursery school. My mother is rather slim and pretty, she is always elegant and smart. In short, she is a pleasant-looking woman of about 40. She always has a lot of work to do both at school and about the house. She is fond of her work and spends a lot of time there. But she has to cook for the whole family at home. Shopping and cooking is nearly half a day's work for her. But my granny and I are in a habit of helping her about the house.

Borys is my elder brother. He is six years senior to me. So he is 23 already. He has graduated from the University and he is an economist by profession now. Boris is married. His wife is a journalist. They are three in the family. They have got a child, my nephew. It is a lovely little boy of two with golden hair and dark brown eyes and a spirit that is always bright and happy, full of joy and gaiety.

And finally a few words about my granny. To tell you the truth, she is my best friend. She always listens to my endless stories about my friends and my university life. She is retired on pension now but in her youth and her older age she worked as a teacher at school. I must admit, she is a very understanding person.

Put it into a few words, we are a united and friendly family.


Reading Texts

^ MEET THE FAMILY

Donald Hewitt. Donald is a very rich man now though he was born into a poor family. Nobody knows how he got into big money but now he's got a computer factory in Cambridge and big accounts in Swiss banks. He is quiet, self-confident and doesn't like to talk much. He's been married to Rosemary for thirty years. They've got three children, two sons and a daughter. Donald has a house in Cambridge and a villa in Spain. He is fond of golf and spends all his free time on golf courses with his business friends. Donald is a very strong-willed person and his only weak spot is his love to his grandchildren.

^ Rosemary Hewitt. Rosemary is Donald's second wife. His first wife died at childbirth 36 years ago. So Rosemary is the stepmother for Charles, Donald's eldest son. Rosemary is a writer of romantic novels, and she is very rich too, because practically all her books become bestsellers as soon as they are published. Most of her time Rosemary lives in Cambridge with her husband and their three dogs, but she also has a house in London where she stays when she discusses her books with her editor. Donald and Rosemary spend summers in their villa in Spain, far from rainy England. When she is not writing, Rosemary enjoys taking care of the beautiful flowers that grow in her gardens.

^ Charles and Amanda Hewitt. Charles is Donald's favourite son. For a long time Charles was an only child in the family and he was spoilt by his grandparents (both Donald's and his late wife's) and his nurse who took care of Charles till Donald married Rosemary. Charles grew up to be selfish, arrogant and extremely ambitious. He became a good businessman but not a nice person. He is married to Amanda who used to be a famous model. Amanda is very beautiful; she won the Beauty Contest "Miss Europe 1993". Charles was one of the sponsors of the contest. He met Amanda there and married her a month later. It isn't a love match. Charles needs a beautiful wife and hostess, Amanda needs a husband who can buy her the things she likes. They have two children Lucy, who is seven, and David, who has just turned six. Neither Charles nor Amanda are affectionate parents. Charles collects cars and spends much more time with them than with his wife and children. Amanda is in love with her face and body and her hobby is shopping and visiting beautician salons and health clubs. She hardly ever thinks about her husband and children.

Andrea and Joseph Williams. Andrea is Donald and Rosemary's daughter. She is her mother's favourite child. In her childhood Andrea was fond of animals. She used to bring home stray dogs and cats, birds with broken wings, collected bugs and butterflies. Her favourite subject at school was biology and after graduating from her college Andrea became a scientist. Her special field is microbiology and she works in her laboratory for long hours. She is married to Joseph who loves his wife more than anything else in the world. Donald and Rosemary's son-in-law is a children's doctor. Andrea and Joseph don't have children of their own yet, so they like to spend time with their niece and nephew. They often take them out into the country where Andrea teaches the kids to love and respect nature and Joseph teaches them to fish and to make a camp fire.

Robin Hewitt. Robin is Andrea's brother. He is 25 and he is a rock singer, though not famous. His parents are not happy about the lifestyle Robin has chosen. Robin didn't like his school and got involved in a company of teenagers who took drugs and stole from shops. Though Robin had never known what lack of pocket money was, he liked what his friends called "adventures" and ended up in a police station after his friends and he tried to rob a local bank. He didn't go to prison because he was not 14 at that time but he never learnt to work hard and his parents are very much upset that he doesn't want to study and get a good profession.

«Skeleton in the cupboard». Donald has a dark secret. In his youth he did something dishonest about which he is sure nobody knows. Two days ago he got a letter in which somebody reminded him about the debt that can be paid only by the life of one of his grandchildren.

Decide which of the statements are true and which are false. Mark + the true statements - the false ones.

  1. Donald Hewitt inherited a big sum of money from his parents.

  2. Donald's grandchildren are «the apple of his eye».

  3. Rosemary has two stepchildren.

  4. She is a very successful novelist.

  5. Rosemary's only hobby is her work.

  6. Charles's mother died and there was nobody to take care of him, when he was growing up.

  7. Amanda married Charles for his money.

  8. Lucy and David are neglected by their parents.

  9. Andrea and Joseph enjoy outdoor activities with their niece and nephew.

  10. Robin stole from shops because his parents limited him in his pocket money.

  11. «Skeleton in the cupboard» means some tragedy, crime or disgrace that happened in the family.

  12. Donald got a threat that put his grandchildren's life in danger.

Fill in the gaps in the following sentences choosing the right words from the box given below.

niece

son

nurse

wife

sister-in-law

grandparents

son-in-law

half-sister

daughter

half-brother

brother-in-law

stepmother

nephew

parents

husband

stepbrother

1. Lucy is Andrea and Joseph's little___________.

2.. Donald and Rosemary's is an affectionate husband.

  1. Charles's Robin wasn't fond of school in his childhood.

  2. Andrea's David is very enthusiastic about fishing.

  3. Charles doesn't show much respect to his Rosemary.

  4. Being spoiled by his _________and____________, Charles grew up to be a very selfish man.

7. Robin is secretly in love with his , Amanda.

Put each of the following words in its correct place in the passage below.

Widow, stepchildren, fiancé, brother, widower, name, younger, close, spinster, get married, cousins, bachelor, stepmother, distant.

My ... is Tom Smiles. I’m the eldest of all the children. My second ... is Jack. The youngest is Michael. My ... sister is two years younger than me. Some time ago she got engaged. Her ... is Mr. Brown. They are going to ... next month.

I have many relatives. My grandparents are dead. But I have a number of ... and relatives: two uncles, four aunts and about a dozen cousins. One of my ... has lost her husband. She is a ... . An uncle of mine has been a ... for many years, but he married recently. His wife is very kind to his ... and treats them as a real mother would do. They love and respect their ... .

My second aunt has remained unmarried and therefore she is what the English call a ... or a single lady. An uncle of mine has also remained single. He is an old ... .

FAMILY

There are many different views on family life. Some people could not do without the support and love of their families. Others say it is the source of most of our problems and anxieties. Whatever the truth is, the family is definitely a powerful symbol. Turn on the television or open a magazine and you will see advertisements featuring happy, balanced families.

The family is the most basic and ancient of all institutions, and it remains the fundamental social unit in every society. Sociologists divide families into two general types: the nuclear family and the extended family, which may include three or more generations living together.

There are people who say that the family unit in Britain is in crisis and that the traditional family life is in the past. This is of great concern to those who think a healthy society is dependent upon a stable family life.

A “typical” British family used to consist of a mother, a father and two children, but in recent years there have been many changes in family life. Some of these have been caused by new laws and others are the result of changes in society. For example, since the law made it easier to get a divorce, the number of divorces has increased. In fact, one marriage in three now ends in divorce. This means that there are a lot of one-parent families.

Society is now more tolerant than it used to be of unmarried people, unmarried couples and single parents.

You might think that marriage and the family are not so popular as they once were. However, the majority of divorced people marry again, and they sometimes take responsibility for a second family.

Members of a family – grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins – keep in touch, but they see less of each other than they used to. This is because people often move away from their home town to work, and so their family becomes scattered.

In general, each generation is keen to become independent of parents in establishing its own family unit, and this fact can lead to social as well as geographical differences within the larger family group.

Relationships within the family are different now. Parents treat their children more as equals than they used to, and children have more freedom to make their own decisions. The father is more involved with bringing up children, often because the mother goes out to work. Increased leisure facilities and more money mean that there are greater opportunities outside the home. Although the family holiday is still an important part of family life (usually taken in August, and often abroad) many children have holidays away from their parents.

Who looks after the older generation? The government gives financial help in the form of a pension but in the future it will be more and more difficult for the nation economy to support the increasing number of elderly. At present time, more than half of all old people are looked after at home. Many others live in Old People’s Homes, which may be private or state owned.

But still, the English are a nation of stay-at-homes. “There is no place like home”, they say. And when the man is not working he is at home in the company of his wife and children and busies himself with the affairs of the home. “The Englishman’s home is his castle”, is a saying known all over the world. And it is true.

And what is the American family like? Most American families consist of a mother, a father and three or four children living at home. There may be relatives – grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and in-laws in the same community, but American families usually maintain separate households. This familial structure is known as the “nuclear family”. It is unusual for members of the family other than the husband, wife and children to live together. Occasionally an aging grandparent may live with the family, but this arrangement is usually not considered desirable. Although the nuclear family unit is economically independent of the rest of the family, members of the whole family maintain close kinship ties.

In the American family the husband and wife usually share important decision making. When the children are old enough, they participate as well. Foreign observers are frequently amazed by the permissiveness of American parents. The father seldom expects his children to obey him without question, and children are often allowed to do what they wish without strict parental control. Americans believe strongly that the individual person should have the freedom to decide the course of his or her life. Independence is highly valued in the United States. Children are expected to make choices – appropriate to their age and maturity level – in many areas of their lives. Parents encourage their children to make choices from an early age: how to decorate their bedroom, how to spend money which they have earned, or what camp they would like to attend. By the time children reach secondary schools, they are expected to be able to choose among a variety of courses and activities: American or world literature? Spanish or Japanese? College preparatory or vocational courses? Football or the school band? Of course, parents and school advisors help with these decisions, but great emphasis is put on individual choice. By adulthood, Americans want and expect to choose where they will live, where they will work, and with whom they will socialize and marry. Young people are expected to break from their families by the time they have reached their late teens or early twenties. Indeed, not to do so is often regarded as a failure, kind of weak dependence.

This pattern of independence often results in serious problems for the aging parents of a nuclear family. The job-retirement age is usually 65. The children have left home, married and set up their own households. Elderly couples feel useless and lonely with neither an occupation nor a close family group. Many communities and church groups sponsor social centers for “senior citizens”. At these centers older men and women can make friends and participate in a variety of planned activities.

So, what exactly is a family? Our ideas on the subject may tend to be ethnocentric, for they are often based on the middle-class “ideal” family, one that consists of a husband, a wife, and their dependent children. This particular family pattern, however, is far from typical. A more accurate conception of the family must take account of the many different family forms that have existed or still exist both in America and in other countries.

We may say, then, that the family is a relatively permanent group of people related by ancestry, marriage, or adoption, who live together, form an economic unit, and take care of the young.

^ Give the English equivalents to the following using the words and word-combinations from the text:

Існує багато точок зору на…., деякі не можуть обійтись без підтримки, джерело більшості проблем та хвилювань, щоб там не було, показувати щасливі, гармонійні сім’ї по ТБ, типова англійська родина складалася з…, неповні сім’ї, нести відповідальність за другу родину, підтримувати стосунки, фінансова допомога у вигляді пенсії, родичі по лінії дружини/ чоловіка, родичі/рідня, вести окреме/самостійне домашнє господарство, матеріально не залежати від родичів, підтримувати тісні стосунки з родичами, приймати важливі рішення разом, брати участь у…, дивуватися вседозволеності, беззаперечно підкорятися кому-небудь, строгий батьківський контроль, американці глибоко переконані, мати свободу вибору, високо цінуватися, робити вибір, відповідно до свого віку та ступеня зрілості, заохочувати дітей у прийнятті рішень, з раннього віку, меблювати/декорувати кімнату, заробляти гроші, різноманіття навчальних предметів, підготовчі/профорієнтаційні курси, спілкуватися/ зустрічатися/ тусуватися, вважатися невдачею/розглядати як…, пенсійний вік, завести власну сім’ю, брати до уваги, турбуватися про когось.
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