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Topics: Professions and Professional Duties
Means of Transport
Grammar: The Future Simple Tense; to be going to; Prepositions of Place;
Degrees of comparison of adjectives; Pronouns, Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Articles with geographical names and nationalities.
Professions and Professional Duties
Eastern Europe Research Center
The Eastern Europe Research Center is in Kyiv. The Center conducts research and publishes a journal on economic problems in Eastern Europe. The Director is an economist, the Deputy Director is a political scientist.
11 other employees work for the Center: a secretary, 3 typists, an accountant, a lawyer, 3 clerks and an editor. And of course, a charwoman.
The accountant works part-time. She is busy with all the financial issues of the Center. The 3 clerks in the Research Unit are in fact researchers. One of them is a senior researcher who manages the work of the Research Unit. They collect data on different economic issues and file or log them into the computer. Then they analyze the data and write articles for the journal.
The editor of the journal is the head of the Publishing Unit. He distributes assignments and supervises over the work of the 3 typists and prepares weekly reports for the Director. He is responsible for the issue of the journal that is published monthly, that is, the journal is a monthly edition.
The Director’s secretary sometimes helps the Deputy Director but does not work for the Research Unit – she is very busy. She answers telephone calls, arranges meetings, makes appointments and so on.
The lawyer is rather experienced in his profession. He prepares legal papers for state registration, makes reports on audits and contracts, defends the rights of the Center in court and Arbitration Committees*, if necessary, he consults the Director and accountant on legal issues, as well as all the other employees.
The Center is a NGO* (Non-Government Organization) and it maintains relations with other NGOs in Ukraine and abroad, as well as with government agencies. It is a small organization and there is no Personnel Department or a Personnel Manager.
Ex. 1. Find in the text international words and read them out loud.
Ex. 2. Complete the questions and answer them:
10. How many employees (does work/do work/work) for their personnel department?
Ex. 3 Match the English words and world-combinations from set A with
their Ukrainian equivalents from set B:
Use: for A: As far as I know, as far as I remember, I am sure.
for B: Northing of the kind, but, the text says.
Model : A. Eastern Europe Research Center is in Lviv, as far as I know.
B. But (The text says) it is not in Lviv, it is in Kyiv.
1. There are 20 employees in the Center, … . 2. They haven’t got a charwoman, … 3. They have got 5 researchers in the Research Unit. 4. Director of the Center is a political scientist, …. 5. Their lawyer does not deal with legal papers, he only consults the employees, … 6. Their accountant works 5 days a week, 8 hours a day, … . 7. Deputy Director supervises over the work of the typists, … 8. The Center does not maintain relations with other organizations, … . 9. The secretary only makes tea for Director, nothing else (більш нічого), … .
Ex. 5. Speak on:
A sales manager is describing his job and talking about the things he does and how often he does them.
S.M.: Well, I usually work in my office, of course. I spend a lot of time on the telephone and dealing with the post.
I have to report to the general manager every day to tell him what I am doing and why. I also have to meet the finance manager twice a week to discuss figures, the sales figures from each of our branches coming monthly. So, every month I have to check them very carefully to see if we have reached* our targets. If we are below target as it happens sometimes then I visit the branch and talk to the branch manager about it.
I usually travel abroad too when we have international trade fairs or important meetings with our parent company.
Interviewer: Do you ever meet the customers themselves?
^ Oh, yes. Quite often. The important customers, such as the government I deal directly with myself.
Interviewer: What else do you do?
S.M.: Well, there are the quarterly financial reports to prepare. And once a year we have our annual general meeting where we discuss the past year and fix the targets for the next year.
Interviewer: How often do the company’s annual sales figures fall below target?
S.M.: Oh, never.
*have reached – досягнули
Ex. 6. Find in the text answers to the following questions.
Ex. 7. Match the English words and world-combinations from set A with
their Ukrainian equivalents from set B:
Use phrases : In my opinion, As far as I know, I am sure that, As far as I remember, As a matter of fact, It seems to me, I consider etc.
Ex. 9. Fill in the blanks with a preposition if necessary:
1. At the annual general meetings we fix the targets _____ the next year. 2. I usually deal _____ important customers myself. 3. The secretary spends a lot of time _____ the telephone. 4. How often does the economist report _____ the Director? 5. What is she busy _____? – She is preparing a report _____ the general manager. 6. Do you file the data _____ the computer? – Yes, I do. 7. Who is responsible _____ the issue of the journal? – Our editor is. 8. Our lawyer is rather experienced _____ his profession. – Does he consult _____ the employees _____ legal issues? 9. Our company maintains good relations _____ companies abroad.
Ex. 10. Make adverbs from the adjectives according to the models:
Model I A + -ly = adverb
careful + -ly = carefully
General, annual, usual, careless, financial, flexible, effective, glad, quick, slow, happy (change y into i).
Model II N + -ly = adverb
quarter + -ly = quarterly
Month, year, half year, week, day (change y into i).
Ex. 11. Choose the correct word:
1. Our accountant makes _____ financial reports (annual, annually). 2. I usually check the figures _____ (careful, carefully). 3. Our sales manager _____ travels abroad twice a year (usual, usually). 4. She helps her parents _____ (financial, financially). 5. The secretary _____ makes arrangements for different conferences (general, generally).
Ex.12. Agree with the following statements adding the word in brackets. Pair work.
Use: Oh, yes; That is really so; I quite agree with you, You are right
Model I: A. The sales manager reports to the general manager (daily).
B. Oh, yes. He reports to the general manager daily.
1. He checks the figures (carefully). 2. If they are below target he visits the branch (regularly). 3. He deals with important customers himself (directly). 4. He meets the finance manager to discuss figures (weekly). 5. As far as I understand, they have general meetings (yearly). 6. As far as I know, he prepares financial reports (quarterly). 7. He spends a lot of time on the telephone (usually). 8. As far as I understand, he travels abroad (quite often). 9. I see, he visits international trade fairs (generally).
Ex. 13. Speak on:
Ex. 14. Speak on professional duties of an imaginary business person. (his/her name, position. duties).
Ex. 1. Consult the Grammar Focus about Future Indefinite (Simple) Tense.
Ex. 2. Make the following interrogative and negative:
1. They will be in Paris the day after tomorrow. 2. She will cook breakfast for us. 3. We shall start at dawn. 4. The boy will be seven next year. 5. The plane will take off in five minutes. 6. I shall see you on Monday. 7. They’ll tell us about it.
Ex. 3. Complete the sentences with will or won’t.
1. Can you wait for me? I won’t be very long. 2. There is no need to take an umbrella with you. It _____ rain. 3. If you don’t eat anything now, you _____ be hungry later. 4. I am sorry about what happened yesterday. It ____ happen again. 5. I have got some incredible news! You ____ never believe it. 6. Don’t ask Margaret for advice. She ____ know what to do.
Ex. 4. Put questions to the italicized words.
1. Our friends will come to see us tomorrow. 2. They will arrive in some minutes. 3. His parents will be at home after six. 4. Jack won’t go to the cinema because he is busy. 5. We’ll play chess this evening. 6. We’ll get up at seven tomorrow.
Ex. 5. Fill in the correct future or present forms.
Ex. 6. Combine the given sentences as in the model:
Model: He will get tickets. We shall go to the theatre. – If he gets tickets, we shall go to the theatre.
1. The weather will be fine. The children will go on a trip. 2. The wind will blow from the west. It will rain. 3. You won’t wake me up. I’ll miss the train. 4. We’ll take a taxi. We’ll catch the train. 5. The lawyer will be in the office. He will consult you. 6. I will work overtime. I’ll get extra pay.
Ex. 7. Consult the Grammar Focus about to be going to.
Ex. 8. The people in the sentences below are all thinking about their summer holidays. Complete the sentences about what they plan to do using to be going to . Use these verbs.
travel learn read stay walk
play see cycle swim lie
Ex. 9. Underline the correct item.
1. “I really need a drink.” “OK, I’ll buy /’m buying you one. What would you like?”
2. “You look dreadful.” “I know, I’m seeng /’ll see the doctor tomorrow at 4 o’clock.
3. “Did you water the plants?” “Oh, no, I forgot; I’ll water /am going to water them now.”
4. I’m sure he’ll understand / ‘s going to understand if you explain it to him clearly.
5. If I have / will have enough money, I’ll buy a new bicycle.
6. Excuse me, Colin. Will you be going / Will you go to the library this morning?
7. I’m not sure when I go / will go on holiday this year.
8. If we go / will go to Greece in the summer, we will visit the islands.
Ex. 10. Complete the sentences using to be going to for future.
Ex. 11. a) Give the plural of the following nouns (in writing).
Chairman, company, activity, standard, quality, relation, decision, employee, operation, customer, supervisor, problem, team, target, task, performance, organization, human being, resource, opinion, library, objective.
b) now read the nouns out loud.
Ex. 12 . Match the English words and world-combinations from set A with
their Ukrainian equivalents from set B:
Model I: Use: Of course, certainly, I am sure.
A. In my opinion, a good manager must be able to decide how to use the company’s resources (to develop people).
B. Of course, he must. And he must be able to develop people.
1. In my opinion, every manager must be able to set objectives (to divide tasks among the employees). 2. I personally think, that a good manager must be able to measure the performance of his/her unit (to set targets and standards). 3. I am sure, that every supervisor must be able to direct and lead his/her employees (to communicate with them).
1. Must every manager use his organization’s resources effectively? (help people to grow as human beings). 2. Must he plan his organization’s work? (have relations with other companies). 3. Must every society help people to create their standards of living? (their quality of life).
Ex.15. Fill in the blanks with prepositions if necessary:
Mr. Ford is the general manager _____ our company. 900 employees work _____ our company and Mr. Ford knows how to motivate and lead them. He often speaks _____ people _____ their jobs and their future and their problems. He is able to measure the performance of every unit and get the unit’s managers to work effectively. He also knows how to divide the task _____ the units. _____ this task every manager needs _____ social skills, and Mr. Ford has got such skills.
The personnel manager is interviewing two people to select one as a unit manager. The two people are Ms. Brown and Mr. Stanford.
P.M.: I ask you to name three important qualities of a good manager. Well, Mr. Stanford, what do you think are important qualities of a good manager?
M.S.: The first quality is the ability to deal with other people. He must be able to persuade people that his way is right. That’s why he is a manager. He must be firm with people. The second quality, I think, is his ability to talk to the personnel about their problems and their plans. This is a mark of a good manager. And finally, the third quality is his good knowledge and good health. He must be mentally competent and physically fit.
^ Thank you, Mr. Stanford. And what is your opinion, Ms. Brown?
M.B.: In my opinion, the first quality must be her or his ability to control people and to make decisions on the future of his/her organization. Secondly, his ability to motivate employees and communicate with them. He must not be too lenient or too dogmatic. Good relations make a good team. The third quality, I think, is his or her sound educational background. That’s how employees begin to respect a good manager.
P.M.: Thank you, Ms. Brown, and thank you, Mr. Stanford.
Ex. 14. Choose qualities from the list to speak about the following jobs:
a lawyer, an economist, an accountant, a financial manager, a sales manager, a secretary, an editor.
Competent; good at communicating; good at motivating people; good at taking initiative and lead other people; group oriented; intuitive; logical; rational and analytic; hardworking; friendly; able to make decisions, polite; careful; creative; imaginative; patient etc.
analytical abilities, good educational background, lenient/dogmatic, physically fit, to be adaptable and flexible.
Ex. 16. Characterize an imaginary or real business person, his/her position, professional qualities such as analytical ability and social skills.
Ex. 1. Consult the Grammar Focus about Present Simple Tense and Present Continuous Tense for future.
Ex. 2. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. I’m going to the theatre next Tuesday. 2. What time is Kate arriving tomorrow? 3. The train leaves Plymouth at 11:30 and arrives at London at 14:45. 4. What time does the film begin? 5. What time do you finish your work tomorrow? 6. She is going to the cinema this evening. 7. The art exhibition opens on 3 May and finishes on 15 May. 8. The concert begins at 7:30 p. m.
Ex. 3. Are the following sentences present or future? Write Present or Future after each one.
Ex. 4. Complete the sentences putting the verbs into the Present Continuous.
Ex. 5. Open the brackets and use either the Future Indefinite or the Present Continuous Tense:
1. I’ve got a typewriter, I (learn) to type. 2. No, I (not eat) any more. I am a vegetarian. 3. What’s wrong? – I’ve got a flat tyre. – No problem. I (help) you. 4. What you (do) this evening? 5. He (be) busy tomorrow. He (service) his car. 6. Lucy (not go) anywhere this summer. Her son (go) to college. 7. I (go) to the country for the weekend. – I (go) with you. 8. You (turn down) the radio, please? 9 I (give) you another piece of cake? – No, thanks. That (do). 10. You (help) me with this bag?
Ex. 6. Fill in: will or be going to.
B: Yes, I am going to visit Spain.
B: Yes, I ………… see the dentist tomorrow.
B: No, but I …………. get some now if you like.
B: Oh weeks ago, but I …………. meet her tonight.
B: I know. My son …………. wash it this afternoon.
B: No, but I expect it …………. be warmer than today.
B: Sorry! I …………… eat at the Chinese restaurant with Paul.
B: I …………….. have a hamburger and some chips, please.
B: Yes, I ………….. watch the interview with the Queen.
Ex. 7. Choose the correct variant:
1. If you _____ to the departmental head he will explain to you all our rules and regulations (will speak, speak). 2. Personnel manager: “Well, ladies and gentlemen. I _____ you a little about the rules and regulations we try to adhere to in our firm” (am going to tell, is going to tell, will tell). 3. Look at the dark clouds. It _____, I think (is going to rain, will rain, rains). 4. The lawyer is out, isn’t he? Then I _____ for him (won’t wait, am not going to wait, don’t wait). 5. I’m sure the researchers _____ late in the office (won’t stay, are not going to stay). 6. Somebody _____ probably _____ the finance manager and let him know the news (is ¼. going to call, will ¼. call).
Ex. 8. Consult the Grammar focus and copy out all the prepositions of place and memorize them.
Ex. 9. Complete the sentences with in, at, on, near, between.
Means of transport
It seems almost everyone likes to travel. Travelling is more appealing during the summer when the weather is very warm and travelling can be easy to get to. People travel by train, by plane, by boat, by car. All ways of travelling have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations.
The most convenient way to travel is by plane. It is the quickest and the most comfortable. The plane ticket is more expensive than the railroad ticket. But travelling by plane takes us less time, which is rather important when we are short of time. Usually a big city has many airway terminals from which hundreds of planes land and take off and thousands of passengers get on and off planes at the airport every day. People usually make reservations for flights in advance, especially in summer time.
Travelling by train is cheaper but slower. There are slow trains and fast trains. Slow trains are slower only because they stop at all stations but fast trains do not. There are overnight trains and if, for instance, a passenger travels from London to Scotland, he/she may get on the overnight train, leave London in the evening and arrive at Gatwick in the morning. Passengers can travel in a sleeper, a first-class car (carriage) or a second-class car (carriage). A first-class ticket is 50% more expensive than a second-class ticket.
Another popular way of travelling is by car. Travelling by car is, of course, comfortable. A passenger doesn’t buy a ticket, he can stop wherever he wishes to see historic places and beautiful sights. One can travel for long distances without getting too tired. And for this reason travelling by car is popular for pleasure trips while people usually take a train or a plane when they are travelling on business.
Some people prefer to travel by boat. Luxurious ships cross seas and oceans from one continent to another and a sea voyage can be really enjoyable.
In the city we can use a bus, a tram, the Underground and, of course, a taxi. Traffic is heavy. You must be careful when you are crossing the road to avoid accidents.
Sometimes you have to change from one means of transport to another. You do it at a stop. If you go down to a Metro Station you insert your fare card or metro token into the gate with a green light on.
In the trolleybus, bus or tram there is a conductor, who says:” Fares, please.” If there is a vacant seat, you take it. If all the seats are taken, you have to stand.
One must do it. - Треба зробити це.
Ex. 1. Complete the questions and answer them.
Ex. 2. Match the English words and word-combinations from set A with their Ukrainian equivalents from set B.
People (подорожують) by train, by plane, by boat, by car. All ways of traveling (мають свої переваги та недоліки). It is (більш привабливим) to travel during the summer. People choose the way of travelling (відповідно їх планам та місцю призначення).
(Найзручніший) way of traveling is by plane. It is also (найшвидший) and (найбільш комфортабельний), but it is very (дорогий). But traveling by plane take us (менш часу). (Квиток на літак) is more expensive than the railroad ticket.
A big city usually has (аеропорти) from which hundreds of planes (злітають та садяться). People usually (резервують місце) for flights (заздалегідь).
Some people prefer travelling by train. It is (дешевше) but (повільніше). There are (пасажирські потяги) and (швидкі потяги). Passenger can travel in (спальний вагон), (вагон першого класу) or (вагоні другого класу). A first-class ticket is 50% (дорожче) than a second class ticket.
Another popular (засіб подорожування) is by car. Travelling by car is of course (зручне). You can travel without (не дуже стомлюючись).
A passenger can stop (де б він не захотів) to see historical places.
1) Я вважаю, що поїзд є найзручнішим засобом пересування для мене.
2) Подорож автомобілем популярна, тому що ми подорожуємо не дуже стомлюючись на довгі дистанції.
3) Якщо дорожній рух великий, будьте обережними, переходячи вулицю, щоб уникнути нещасних випадків.
4) Подорож поїздом дешевша, але повільніша.
Ex. 5. Fill in the proper preposition.
1. The Browns arrived … France last Monday.
2. This is my stop I have to get … .
3. The train arrived … the station and we get … .
4. I like to fly … plane. It’s so fast.
5. Shall we go … bus or shall we go … foot?
6. How can I get … this car? It is locked.
7. Get … my car! I’ll call the police.
Ex. 6. Here some conversations on different kinds of transport. Where does each conversation take place? Choose from the box.
|Professions and Professional Duties Means of Transport||I
choose the USLA because in future I would like to be a lawyer and
it’s also good place where you have professional high legal
profession of a lawyer is one of the most popular present day
professions of our country. It’s profession is very
interesting, prestigious and highly-paid.|
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