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Module II

Topics: Professions and Professional Duties

Means of Transport


Grammar: The Future Simple Tense; to be going to; Prepositions of Place;

Degrees of comparison of adjectives; Pronouns, Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Articles with geographical names and nationalities.

Unit I

Text A

Professions and Professional Duties

Eastern Europe Research Center

The Eastern Europe Research Center is in Kyiv. The Center conducts research and publishes a journal on economic problems in Eastern Europe. The Director is an economist, the Deputy Director is a political scientist.

11 other employees work for the Center: a secretary, 3 typists, an accountant, a lawyer, 3 clerks and an editor. And of course, a charwoman.

The accountant works part-time. She is busy with all the financial issues of the Center. The 3 clerks in the Research Unit are in fact researchers. One of them is a senior researcher who manages the work of the Research Unit. They collect data on different economic issues and file or log them into the computer. Then they analyze the data and write articles for the journal.

The editor of the journal is the head of the Publishing Unit. He distributes assignments and supervises over the work of the 3 typists and prepares weekly reports for the Director. He is responsible for the issue of the journal that is published monthly, that is, the journal is a monthly edition.

The Director’s secretary sometimes helps the Deputy Director but does not work for the Research Unit – she is very busy. She answers telephone calls, arranges meetings, makes appointments and so on.

The lawyer is rather experienced in his profession. He prepares legal papers for state registration, makes reports on audits and contracts, defends the rights of the Center in court and Arbitration Committees*, if necessary, he consults the Director and accountant on legal issues, as well as all the other employees.

The Center is a NGO* (Non-Government Organization) and it maintains relations with other NGOs in Ukraine and abroad, as well as with government agencies. It is a small organization and there is no Personnel Department or a Personnel Manager.


Arbitration Committee



не урядова організація

Ex. 1. Find in the text international words and read them out loud.

Ex. 2. Complete the questions and answer them:

  1. What (is/do/are) the Center busy with?

  2. What (is/are/do) the Director and Deputy Director by profession?

  3. How many people (do work/work/works) for the Center and what is their position in the Center?

  4. What (does/are /do) the researchers deal with?

  5. What (are/does/do) the editor do?

  6. What (are/is/do) the duties of the Director’s secretary?

  7. (Is/are/am) the lawyer experienced in his profession? Why do you think so?

  8. (are/do/is) the Center a government agency?

  9. What other organizations (do/are/does) the Center maintain relations with?

10. How many employees (does work/do work/work) for their personnel department?

Ex. 3 Match the English words and world-combinations from set A with

their Ukrainian equivalents from set B:



analyze the data

відділ кадрів

work part-time

бути відповідальним за...

conduct research

організовувати зустрічі

prepare legal papers

захищати права

maintain relations with

вносити дані в комп’ютер

supervise over the work

призначати зустрічі

collect data

розподіляти завдання

distribute assignments

збирати дані

be responsible for

бути досвідченим у...

arrange meetings

працювати неповний робочий день

defend the rights

готувати юридичні документи

make appointments

керувати роботою

be experienced in

проводити дослідження

file or log the data into the computer

видання журналу

issue of the journal

підтримувати зв’язки з...

Personnel Department

мати справу з...

deal with

аналізувати дані

^ Ex. 4. Contradict the statements below according to the models. Work in pairs.

Use: for A: As far as I know, as far as I remember, I am sure.

for B: Northing of the kind, but, the text says.

Model : A. Eastern Europe Research Center is in Lviv, as far as I know.

B. But (The text says) it is not in Lviv, it is in Kyiv.

1. There are 20 employees in the Center, … . 2. They haven’t got a charwoman, … 3. They have got 5 researchers in the Research Unit. 4. Director of the Center is a political scientist, …. 5. Their lawyer does not deal with legal papers, he only consults the employees, … 6. Their accountant works 5 days a week, 8 hours a day, … . 7. Deputy Director supervises over the work of the typists, … 8. The Center does not maintain relations with other organizations, … . 9. The secretary only makes tea for Director, nothing else (більш нічого), … .

Ex. 5. Speak on:

  1. The work of the Center and the number of people who work for the Center.

  2. The duties of the accountant and the researchers.

  3. The responsibilities of the editor.

  4. The duties of the secretary.

  5. The work of the lawyer.

Text B
Work Routines

A sales manager is describing his job and talking about the things he does and how often he does them.

S.M.: Well, I usually work in my office, of course. I spend a lot of time on the telephone and dealing with the post.

I have to report to the general manager every day to tell him what I am doing and why. I also have to meet the finance manager twice a week to discuss figures, the sales figures from each of our branches coming monthly. So, every month I have to check them very carefully to see if we have reached* our targets. If we are below target as it happens sometimes then I visit the branch and talk to the branch manager about it.

I usually travel abroad too when we have international trade fairs or important meetings with our parent company.

Interviewer: Do you ever meet the customers themselves?

^ S.M.: Oh, yes. Quite often. The important customers, such as the government I deal directly with myself.

Interviewer: What else do you do?

S.M.: Well, there are the quarterly financial reports to prepare. And once a year we have our annual general meeting where we discuss the past year and fix the targets for the next year.

Interviewer: How often do the company’s annual sales figures fall below target?

S.M.: Oh, never.

*have reached – досягнули

Ex. 6. Find in the text answers to the following questions.

  1. How often does the sales manager report to the general manager?

  2. Why does he have to meet the finance manager? How often?

  3. In what case does he visit the branches of his company?

  4. Why does he travel abroad?

  5. Does he prepare reports?

  6. What do they do at the annual meeting?

Ex. 7. Match the English words and world-combinations from set A with

their Ukrainian equivalents from set B:


a) fix the targets; b) meet the customers; c) twice a week; d) discuss figures;

e) be below targets; f) travel abroad; g) sales figures; h) spend a lot of time on the telephone; i) have to check; j) once a year.


1) зустрічати клієнтів; 2) проводити багато часу на телефоні;

3) встановлювати цілі; 4) повинні перевіряти; 5) два рази на тиждень; 6) подорожувати закордон; 7) цифри продажу; 8) раз у рік; 9) бути нижче запланованої мети; 10) обговорювати цифри.

^ Ex. 8. Match the job to the responsibilities, then make complete sentences.

Use phrases : In my opinion, As far as I know, I am sure that, As far as I remember, As a matter of fact, It seems to me, I consider etc.


prepares legal papers


arranges meetings and makes appointments for the director


defends the rights of the company in court


is busy with financial issues of the company


discusses the sales figures with the financial manager

general manager

fixes the targets for the next year

sales manager

deals with the customers

finance manager

consults the director and employees on legal issues


does the cleaning of the office

is responsible for the issue of the journal

writes articles for the journal

distributes assignments

supervises over the work of subordinates

Ex. 9. Fill in the blanks with a preposition if necessary:

1. At the annual general meetings we fix the targets _____ the next year. 2. I usually deal _____ important customers myself. 3. The secretary spends a lot of time _____ the telephone. 4. How often does the economist report _____ the Director? 5. What is she busy _____? – She is preparing a report _____ the general manager. 6. Do you file the data _____ the computer? – Yes, I do. 7. Who is responsible _____ the issue of the journal? – Our editor is. 8. Our lawyer is rather experienced _____ his profession. – Does he consult _____ the employees _____ legal issues? 9. Our company maintains good relations _____ companies abroad.

Ex. 10. Make adverbs from the adjectives according to the models:

Model I A + -ly = adverb

careful + -ly = carefully

General, annual, usual, careless, financial, flexible, effective, glad, quick, slow, happy (change y into i).

Model II N + -ly = adverb

quarter + -ly = quarterly

Month, year, half year, week, day (change y into i).

Ex. 11. Choose the correct word:

1. Our accountant makes _____ financial reports (annual, annually). 2. I usually check the figures _____ (careful, carefully). 3. Our sales manager _____ travels abroad twice a year (usual, usually). 4. She helps her parents _____ (financial, financially). 5. The secretary _____ makes arrangements for different conferences (general, generally).

Ex.12. Agree with the following statements adding the word in brackets. Pair work.

Use: Oh, yes; That is really so; I quite agree with you, You are right

Model I: A. The sales manager reports to the general manager (daily).

B. Oh, yes. He reports to the general manager daily.

1. He checks the figures (carefully). 2. If they are below target he visits the branch (regularly). 3. He deals with important customers himself (directly). 4. He meets the finance manager to discuss figures (weekly). 5. As far as I understand, they have general meetings (yearly). 6. As far as I know, he prepares financial reports (quarterly). 7. He spends a lot of time on the telephone (usually). 8. As far as I understand, he travels abroad (quite often). 9. I see, he visits international trade fairs (generally).

Ex. 13. Speak on:

  1. the sales manager’s meetings with the general manager;

  2. his meetings with the finance manager;

  3. his visits to the branch offices;

  4. his travelling abroad and meetings with important customers;

  5. his financial reports and their annual general meetings.

Ex. 14. Speak on professional duties of an imaginary business person. (his/her name, position. duties).

Grammar Exercises

Ex. 1. Consult the Grammar Focus about Future Indefinite (Simple) Tense.

Ex. 2. Make the following interrogative and negative:

1. They will be in Paris the day after tomorrow. 2. She will cook breakfast for us. 3. We shall start at dawn. 4. The boy will be seven next year. 5. The plane will take off in five minutes. 6. I shall see you on Monday. 7. They’ll tell us about it.

Ex. 3. Complete the sentences with will or won’t.

1. Can you wait for me? I won’t be very long. 2. There is no need to take an umbrella with you. It _____ rain. 3. If you don’t eat anything now, you _____ be hungry later. 4. I am sorry about what happened yesterday. It ____ happen again. 5. I have got some incredible news! You ____ never believe it. 6. Don’t ask Margaret for advice. She ____ know what to do.

Ex. 4. Put questions to the italicized words.

1. Our friends will come to see us tomorrow. 2. They will arrive in some minutes. 3. His parents will be at home after six. 4. Jack won’t go to the cinema because he is busy. 5. We’ll play chess this evening. 6. We’ll get up at seven tomorrow.

Ex. 5. Fill in the correct future or present forms.

  1. If you ____ (come) tomorrow, you ____ (see) them here.

  2. Carol ____ (buy) that dress, if she ____ (have) enough money.

  3. When I ____ (arrive) in New York, I ____ (call) you.

  4. If his sister ____ (pass) last exam excellent, she ____ (become) a student.

  5. He ____ (not recognize) his flat, when he ____ (come back).

Ex. 6. Combine the given sentences as in the model:

Model: He will get tickets. We shall go to the theatre. – If he gets tickets, we shall go to the theatre.

1. The weather will be fine. The children will go on a trip. 2. The wind will blow from the west. It will rain. 3. You won’t wake me up. I’ll miss the train. 4. We’ll take a taxi. We’ll catch the train. 5. The lawyer will be in the office. He will consult you. 6. I will work overtime. I’ll get extra pay.

Ex. 7. Consult the Grammar Focus about to be going to.

Ex. 8. The people in the sentences below are all thinking about their summer holidays. Complete the sentences about what they plan to do using to be going to . Use these verbs.

travel learn read stay walk

play see cycle swim lie

  1. I am going to stay in bed all day.

  2. We …………. the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. I ……………… lots of books.

  4. I ……………….. in the sun.

  5. We …………….. round the world.

  6. I ……………….. to Brighton on my new bike.

  7. I ……………….. lots of sport.

  8. We ………………. English in a summer school.

  9. I ……………….. in the sea every day.

  10. I ………………… in the mountains.

Ex. 9. Underline the correct item.

1. “I really need a drink.” “OK, I’ll buy /’m buying you one. What would you like?”

2. “You look dreadful.” “I know, I’m seeng /’ll see the doctor tomorrow at 4 o’clock.

3. “Did you water the plants?” “Oh, no, I forgot; I’ll water /am going to water them now.”

4. I’m sure he’ll understand / ‘s going to understand if you explain it to him clearly.

5. If I have / will have enough money, I’ll buy a new bicycle.

6. Excuse me, Colin. Will you be going / Will you go to the library this morning?

7. I’m not sure when I go / will go on holiday this year.

8. If we go / will go to Greece in the summer, we will visit the islands.

Ex. 10. Complete the sentences using to be going to for future.

  1. ……………………….. the dinner tonight? (you/make)

  2. He …………….. for a new job soon. (look)

  3. It ………………. hot today, so we should take some bottles of water. (be)

  4. …………………… that film on television tonight? (you/watch)

  5. My brother ………………. the States next month. (visit)

  6. We ………………. in the hotel these days. (stay)

  7. They ……………….. new swimming pool in the centre of town. (build)

  8. …………………… another car? (they/buy)

  9. I ……………….. David’s parents tonight. (meet)

Ex. 11. a) Give the plural of the following nouns (in writing).

Chairman, company, activity, standard, quality, relation, decision, employee, operation, customer, supervisor, problem, team, target, task, performance, organization, human being, resource, opinion, library, objective.

b) now read the nouns out loud.

Ex. 12 . Match the English words and world-combinations from set A with

their Ukrainian equivalents from set B:


a) standard of living; b) supply goods; c) motivate employees; d) on the other hand; e) carry out the work; f) quality of life; g) work as a team; h) set targets and standards; i) measure the performance of the organization; j) divide the task among the employees; k) make day-to-day decisions; l) long time planning; m) depend on the level; n) human being; o) social skills; p) set objectives; q) make orders; r) on the one hand; s) analytical abilities.


1) навички спілкування; 2) рівень життя; 3) доставляти товари; 4) намічати цілі; 5) робити замовлення; 6) людина; 7) з одного боку; 8) оцінювати працездатність організації; 9) залежати від рівня; 10) мотивувати службовців; 11) з іншого боку; 12) довгострокове планування; 13) якість життя; 14) розподіляти завдання серед працівників; 15) встановлювати цілі та норми; 16) виконувати роботу; 17) працювати як одна команда; 18) приймати щоденні рішення; 19) аналітичні здібності.

^ Ex.13. Make sentences using the chart:

must be able – мусить бути спроможним

have to –мусить, повинен

need to - потребує


Finance managers


Personnel managers

Sales managers

General managers

Department managers


be able to

have to

need to

divide tasks among the workers;

organize people;

make decisions;

direct and lead other people;

set objectives;

communicate with employees;

select people for a job/for work;

measure the performance of the department;

develop people;

help employees to grow as human beings;

deal with customers;

consult people on legal issues;

discuss figures with an accountant.

^ Ex. 14. Pair work. Agree with the following statements using the models:

Model I: Use: Of course, certainly, I am sure.

A. In my opinion, a good manager must be able to decide how to use the company’s resources (to develop people).

B. Of course, he must. And he must be able to develop people.

1. In my opinion, every manager must be able to set objectives (to divide tasks among the employees). 2. I personally think, that a good manager must be able to measure the performance of his/her unit (to set targets and standards). 3. I am sure, that every supervisor must be able to direct and lead his/her employees (to communicate with them).

Model II:

  1. Must a good manager control and direct people effectively? (find new decisions).

  2. Certainly, he must. And he must find new decisions too.

1. Must every manager use his organization’s resources effectively? (help people to grow as human beings). 2. Must he plan his organization’s work? (have relations with other companies). 3. Must every society help people to create their standards of living? (their quality of life).

Ex.15. Fill in the blanks with prepositions if necessary:

Mr. Ford is the general manager _____ our company. 900 employees work _____ our company and Mr. Ford knows how to motivate and lead them. He often speaks _____ people _____ their jobs and their future and their problems. He is able to measure the performance of every unit and get the unit’s managers to work effectively. He also knows how to divide the task _____ the units. _____ this task every manager needs _____ social skills, and Mr. Ford has got such skills.

Text C

^ 1) Read the text and write out: a) all the nouns or noun groups; b) adjectives; c) the verbs that deal with qualities of a good business person.


The personnel manager is interviewing two people to select one as a unit manager. The two people are Ms. Brown and Mr. Stanford.

P.M.: I ask you to name three important qualities of a good manager. Well, Mr. Stanford, what do you think are important qualities of a good manager?

M.S.: The first quality is the ability to deal with other people. He must be able to persuade people that his way is right. That’s why he is a manager. He must be firm with people. The second quality, I think, is his ability to talk to the personnel about their problems and their plans. This is a mark of a good manager. And finally, the third quality is his good knowledge and good health. He must be mentally competent and physically fit.

^ P.M.: Thank you, Mr. Stanford. And what is your opinion, Ms. Brown?

M.B.: In my opinion, the first quality must be her or his ability to control people and to make decisions on the future of his/her organization. Secondly, his ability to motivate employees and communicate with them. He must not be too lenient or too dogmatic. Good relations make a good team. The third quality, I think, is his or her sound educational background. That’s how employees begin to respect a good manager.

P.M.: Thank you, Ms. Brown, and thank you, Mr. Stanford.

^ 2) Read all the nouns, then the adjectives and then the verbs that deal with qualities of a good manager.

Ex. 14. Choose qualities from the list to speak about the following jobs:

a lawyer, an economist, an accountant, a financial manager, a sales manager, a secretary, an editor.

^ Use such word combinations as I think, I am sure, in my opinion, etc.


In my opinion


have to

be competent and intuitive.

I am sure

they also


be good at communicating with people.


Competent; good at communicating; good at motivating people; good at taking initiative and lead other people; group oriented; intuitive; logical; rational and analytic; hardworking; friendly; able to make decisions, polite; careful; creative; imaginative; patient etc.

^ Ex. 15. Make up situations using the following:

analytical abilities, good educational background, lenient/dogmatic, physically fit, to be adaptable and flexible.

Ex. 16. Characterize an imaginary or real business person, his/her position, professional qualities such as analytical ability and social skills.

Grammar Exercises

Ex. 1. Consult the Grammar Focus about Present Simple Tense and Present Continuous Tense for future.

Ex. 2. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. I’m going to the theatre next Tuesday. 2. What time is Kate arriving tomorrow? 3. The train leaves Plymouth at 11:30 and arrives at London at 14:45. 4. What time does the film begin? 5. What time do you finish your work tomorrow? 6. She is going to the cinema this evening. 7. The art exhibition opens on 3 May and finishes on 15 May. 8. The concert begins at 7:30 p. m.

Ex. 3. Are the following sentences present or future? Write Present or Future after each one.

  1. Where is Jack? Is he working? Present

  2. Are you going out tonight? Future

  3. That tree is growing very fast.

  4. I'm seeing Trisha on Wednesday.

  5. Anna is starting school on Monday.

  6. I'm waiting for a call at the moment.

  7. He's making some chairs for the garden.

  8. We're getting a new car next week.

  9. My parents are coming to stay with me this weekend.

  10. What languages is she learning at school?

Ex. 4. Complete the sentences putting the verbs into the Present Continuous.

  1. Are you meeting Debbie tonight? (you/meet)

  2. I ……………… to class tomorrow. (not/come)

  3. ……………………….. to work next week? (you/go)

  4. My cousin ……………… us on Saturday. (visit)

  5. I ………………….. a special meal tonight. (make)

  6. ………………………………. on Friday? (they/leave)

  7. We …………………… there with Skybright Airlines. (fly)

  8. We ……………. my niece on holiday with us. (take)

  9. I ………………… a birthday party this year. (not/have)

  10. ……………………… at home this weekend? (you/stay)

  11. …………………… work at 6 o'clock. (finish)

  12. ………………to another town? (they/move)

  13. We ………………. home tonight. (not/go)

  14. They ………………. tonight. (not/come)

Ex. 5. Open the brackets and use either the Future Indefinite or the Present Continuous Tense:

1. I’ve got a typewriter, I (learn) to type. 2. No, I (not eat) any more. I am a vegetarian. 3. What’s wrong? – I’ve got a flat tyre. – No problem. I (help) you. 4. What you (do) this evening? 5. He (be) busy tomorrow. He (service) his car. 6. Lucy (not go) anywhere this summer. Her son (go) to college. 7. I (go) to the country for the weekend. – I (go) with you. 8. You (turn down) the radio, please? 9 I (give) you another piece of cake? – No, thanks. That (do). 10. You (help) me with this bag?

Ex. 6. Fill in: will or be going to.

  1. A: Have you decided where to go for your holidays?

B: Yes, I am going to visit Spain.

  1. A: Does your tooth really hurt?

B: Yes, I ………… see the dentist tomorrow.

  1. A: Do you have any stamps?

B: No, but I …………. get some now if you like.

  1. A: When did you last speak to Susan?

B: Oh weeks ago, but I …………. meet her tonight.

  1. A: Your car is very dirty.

B: I know. My son …………. wash it this afternoon.

  1. A: Do you know what the weather forecast is for tomorrow?

B: No, but I expect it …………. be warmer than today.

  1. A: Shall we go out tonight?

B: Sorry! I …………… eat at the Chinese restaurant with Paul.

  1. A: What do you want to eat?

B: I …………….. have a hamburger and some chips, please.

  1. A: Are you watching TV tonight?

B: Yes, I ………….. watch the interview with the Queen.

Ex. 7. Choose the correct variant:

1. If you _____ to the departmental head he will explain to you all our rules and regulations (will speak, speak). 2. Personnel manager: “Well, ladies and gentlemen. I _____ you a little about the rules and regulations we try to adhere to in our firm” (am going to tell, is going to tell, will tell). 3. Look at the dark clouds. It _____, I think (is going to rain, will rain, rains). 4. The lawyer is out, isn’t he? Then I _____ for him (won’t wait, am not going to wait, don’t wait). 5. I’m sure the researchers _____ late in the office (won’t stay, are not going to stay). 6. Somebody _____ probably _____ the finance manager and let him know the news (is ¼. going to call, will ¼. call).

Ex. 8. Consult the Grammar focus and copy out all the prepositions of place and memorize them.

Ex. 9. Complete the sentences with in, at, on, near, between.

  1. Write your name ___ the top of the page.

  2. I like that picture hanging ___ the wall ___ the kitchen.

  3. I wasn’t sure whether I had come to the right office. There was no name ___ the door.

  4. My brother lives ___ a small village ___ the south-west of England.

  5. There is big armchair ___ the window.

  6. The TV set is ___ the corner of the room.

  7. There is a public telephone ___ the corner of the street.

  8. There is a night table ___ the bed and wardrobe.

Unit II

Text A

Means of transport

It seems almost everyone likes to travel. Travelling is more appealing during the summer when the weather is very warm and travelling can be easy to get to. People travel by train, by plane, by boat, by car. All ways of travelling have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations.

The most convenient way to travel is by plane. It is the quickest and the most comfortable. The plane ticket is more expensive than the railroad ticket. But travelling by plane takes us less time, which is rather important when we are short of time. Usually a big city has many airway terminals from which hundreds of planes land and take off and thousands of passengers get on and off planes at the airport every day. People usually make reservations for flights in advance, especially in summer time.

Travelling by train is cheaper but slower. There are slow trains and fast trains. Slow trains are slower only because they stop at all stations but fast trains do not. There are overnight trains and if, for instance, a passenger travels from London to Scotland, he/she may get on the overnight train, leave London in the evening and arrive at Gatwick in the morning. Passengers can travel in a sleeper, a first-class car (carriage) or a second-class car (carriage). A first-class ticket is 50% more expensive than a second-class ticket.

Another popular way of travelling is by car. Travelling by car is, of course, comfortable. A passenger doesn’t buy a ticket, he can stop wherever he wishes to see historic places and beautiful sights. One can travel for long distances without getting too tired. And for this reason travelling by car is popular for pleasure trips while people usually take a train or a plane when they are travelling on business.

Some people prefer to travel by boat. Luxurious ships cross seas and oceans from one continent to another and a sea voyage can be really enjoyable.

In the city we can use a bus, a tram, the Underground and, of course, a taxi. Traffic is heavy. You must be careful when you are crossing the road to avoid accidents.

Sometimes you have to change from one means of transport to another. You do it at a stop. If you go down to a Metro Station you insert your fare card or metro token into the gate with a green light on.

In the trolleybus, bus or tram there is a conductor, who says:” Fares, please.” If there is a vacant seat, you take it. If all the seats are taken, you have to stand.

  • one - неозначений займенник, який є підметом у реченні і в даному випадку не перекладається.

One must do it. - Треба зробити це.

Ex. 1. Complete the questions and answer them.

  1. Why is/do/are travelling more appealing during the summer?

  2. What means of transport are/do/does passengers use?

  3. What are/is/do the most convenient way to travel? Why?

  4. What kind of car/carriage do/does/is passengers travel in?

  5. What are/do/does you know about the overnight train?

  6. What do/are/is good about travelling by car (by boat)?

  7. What kinds of transport are/can/does we use in the city?

  8. What are/does/do you know about the Underground?

  9. What are/do/can the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by car (by train, by plane, by boat etc.)?

Ex. 2. Match the English words and word-combinations from set A with their Ukrainian equivalents from set B.



to be more appealing

не дуже стомлюючись

according to their plans and destinations


to take us less time

відповідно до їх планів та місця призначення

the plane ticket is more expensive

бути більш привабливим

sometimes you have to change

займає в нас менш часу

to be popular for pleasure trip

бути популярним для приємної подорожі

to make reservation in advance

уникнути нещасних випадків

to get on and off planes

сісти на нічний поїзд

to get on the overnight train

резервувати місце заздалегідь

a first-class car and a second-class car

сісти або вийти з літака

for instance

квиток на літак більш дорогий

without getting too tired

вагон першого класу та вагон другого класу

traffic is heavy

інколи ви повинні пересісти

to avoid accidents

великий вуличний рух

to stop wherever he wishes

зупинятися де завгодно

^ Ex 3. Complete the sentences using the word-combinations from the text above.

People (подорожують) by train, by plane, by boat, by car. All ways of traveling (мають свої переваги та недоліки). It is (більш привабливим) to travel during the summer. People choose the way of travelling (відповідно їх планам та місцю призначення).

(Найзручніший) way of traveling is by plane. It is also (найшвидший) and (найбільш комфортабельний), but it is very (дорогий). But traveling by plane take us (менш часу). (Квиток на літак) is more expensive than the railroad ticket.

A big city usually has (аеропорти) from which hundreds of planes (злітають та садяться). People usually (резервують місце) for flights (заздалегідь).

Some people prefer travelling by train. It is (дешевше) but (повільніше). There are (пасажирські потяги) and (швидкі потяги). Passenger can travel in (спальний вагон), (вагон першого класу) or (вагоні другого класу). A first-class ticket is 50% (дорожче) than a second class ticket.

Another popular (засіб подорожування) is by car. Travelling by car is of course (зручне). You can travel without (не дуже стомлюючись).

A passenger can stop (де б він не захотів) to see historical places.

^ Ex. 4. Translate the sentences.

1) Я вважаю, що поїзд є найзручнішим засобом пересування для мене.

2) Подорож автомобілем популярна, тому що ми подорожуємо не дуже стомлюючись на довгі дистанції.

3) Якщо дорожній рух великий, будьте обережними, переходячи вулицю, щоб уникнути нещасних випадків.

4) Подорож поїздом дешевша, але повільніша.


to get into a car (a taxi) to arrive in a city (country).

to get out of a car (a taxi) to arrive at the station (airport, a town)

to get on a bus(a train, a plane etc.)

to get off a bus(a train, a plane etc.)

by train, by plane, by car, by air, by water etc. But : on foot

Ex. 5. Fill in the proper preposition.

1. The Browns arrived … France last Monday.

2. This is my stop I have to get … .

3. The train arrived … the station and we get … .

4. I like to fly … plane. It’s so fast.

5. Shall we go … bus or shall we go … foot?

6. How can I get … this car? It is locked.

7. Get … my car! I’ll call the police.

Ex. 6. Here some conversations on different kinds of transport. Where does each conversation take place? Choose from the box.







  1   2   3   4


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